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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant180000.0 350000.0 3.89 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rhizophora mangleBark10000.0 520000.0 3.31 *
Ceratonia siliquaBark12000.0 500000.0 3.14 *
Arbutus unedoBark-- 450000.0 2.7 *
Anogeissus latifoliaLeaf322000.0 329000.0 2.67 *
Terminalia chebulaFruit1090.0 355000.0 2.51 *
Acacia niloticaFruit-- 349500.0 2.46 *
Eucalyptus corneaPlant-- 250000.0 2.43 *
Areca catechuSeed150000.0 250000.0 2.11 *
Rhus coriariaLeaf210000.0 280000.0 2.07 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Rumex acetosellaRoot80000.0 140000.0 1.98 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf33800.0 270000.0 1.95 *
Rhus glabraLeaf-- 270000.0 1.95 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 280000.0 1.79 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiPlant60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot30000.0 210000.0 1.66 *
Fallopia japonicaLeaf170000.0 240000.0 1.58 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus citriodoraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 482000.0 1.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Psidium guajavaBark110000.0 300000.0 1.39 *
Punica granatumStem Bark100000.0 250000.0 1.38 *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- 120000.0 1.36 *
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- 170000.0 1.26 *
Maclura pomiferaWood90000.0 100000.0 1.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- 100000.0 1.24 *
Byrsonima crassifoliaBark172500.0 282600.0 1.24 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Fallopia japonicaStem30000.0 130000.0 1.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia belliricaFruit170000.0 214000.0 1.15 *
Simarouba amaraBark200000.0 270000.0 1.13 *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Sclerocarya caffraLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf100000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Mangifera indicaFlower-- 150000.0 1.04 *
Melia azedarachBark180000.0 260000.0 1.04 *
Terminalia catappaFruit60000.0 200000.0 1.02 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Punica granatumPericarp104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Stachys officinalisPlant25200.0 150000.0 0.97 *
Ajuga reptansPlant-- 150000.0 0.97 *
Punica granatumRoot Bark20000.0 280000.0 0.85 *
Myrtus communisPlant-- 140000.0 0.82 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lythrum salicariaFlower-- 137000.0 0.82 *
Schinus molleBark-- 230000.0 0.78 *
Mimosa pudicaRoot-- 100000.0 0.73 *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- 170000.0 0.73 *
Lythrum salicariaStem-- 105000.0 0.65 *
Arbutus unedoLeaf-- 160000.0 0.6 *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Tsuga canadensisRoot Bark-- 245000.0 0.55 *
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower50000.0 120000.0 0.53 *
Lavandula angustifoliaPlant-- 120000.0 0.53 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus roburBark80000.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Alnus glutinosaBark-- 200000.0 0.52 *
Quercus albaBark78500.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 147000.0 0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Acacia niloticaWood-- 63500.0 0.4 *
Prunella vulgarisPlant45000.0 105800.0 0.32 *
Filipendula ulmariaRoot-- 86200.0 0.3 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf59700.0 133000.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Lythrum salicariaRoot-- 85000.0 0.27 *
Juglans regiaFruit-- 122000.0 0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit50000.0 120000.0 0.25 *
Terminalia arjunaFruit70000.0 120000.0 0.25 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- 169000.0 0.24 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Solanum nigrumPlant70000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant80000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Phyllanthus emblicaBark80000.0 166400.0 0.22 *
Quercus rubraBark-- 160000.0 0.17 *
Terminalia arjunaBark-- 158000.0 0.15 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 90000.0 0.12 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf16900.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Lythrum salicariaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Ailanthus altissimaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Rhododendron ponticumLeaf50000.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Symphytum officinalePlant80000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant21000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Tsuga canadensisBark100000.0 150500.0 0.08 *
Anogeissus latifoliaBark100000.0 150000.0 0.08 *
Hamelia patensBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 100000.0 0.05 *
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- 113000.0 0.03 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja hortensisPlant40000.0 85000.0 0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Punica granatumLeaf-- 110000.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans regiaLeaf90000.0 110000.0 -0.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Serenoa repensRoot-- 75800.0 -0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aegle marmelosFruit-- 90000.0 -0.04 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Lonicera japonicaPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Salvia officinalisPlant20000.0 80000.0 -0.05 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant50000.0 80000.0 -0.05 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- 93100.0 -0.09 *
Terminalia catappaBark-- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus serpyllumPlant50000.0 75000.0 -0.13 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus vulgarisLeaf16800.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Ligustrum vulgareLeaf60000.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Psidium guajavaLeaf90000.0 100000.0 -0.13 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Acacia niloticaSeed-- 66100.0 -0.17 *
Salix albaBark20160.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Castanea sativaBark40000.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Punica granatumRoot-- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Teucrium scorodoniaLeaf80000.0 90000.0 -0.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Castanea sativaLeaf-- 90000.0 -0.25 *
Albizia lebbeckBark70000.0 110000.0 -0.27 Wealth of India.
Ceiba pentandraBark-- 108200.0 -0.29 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit31600.0 64500.0 -0.29 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prosopis julifloraRoot-- 67000.0 -0.29 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit18800.0 60225.0 -0.33 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pinus kesiyaBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sclerocarya caffraBark35000.0 100000.0 -0.36 *
Pinus insularisBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf50000.0 80000.0 -0.37 *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- 55600.0 -0.38 Jim Duke's personal files.
Plantago majorPlant40000.0 57000.0 -0.39 *
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf40000.0 77000.0 -0.41 *
Azadirachta indicaStem Bark-- 60000.0 -0.43 *
Juniperus communisFruit-- 50000.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha aquaticaLeaf-- 74000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anacardium occidentaleBark-- 90000.0 -0.45 *
Juniperus virginianaBark21000.0 86000.0 -0.48 *
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf6960.0 70000.0 -0.49 *
Prosopis julifloraBark6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Serenoa repensStem-- 54800.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuscuta europaeaRoot-- 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex crispusRoot30000.0 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Calendula officinalisLeaf-- 64500.0 -0.56 *
Juglans regiaBark53000.0 75100.0 -0.58 *
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- 59800.0 -0.62 *
Tamarindus indicaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Robinia pseudoacaciaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ligustrum vulgareBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Prunus cerasusBark50000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia belliricaBark14000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 30000.0 -0.62 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lagochilus inebriansPlant20000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant28000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus domesticaBark-- 68000.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Castanea sativaSeed20000.0 28000.0 -0.64 *
Acacia niloticaResin, Exudate, Sap170000.0 200000.0 -0.66 *
Ulmus rubraBark30000.0 65000.0 -0.67 *
Aleurites moluccanaBark40000.0 60000.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Catalpa bignonioidesBark-- 60000.0 -0.71 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria galericulataPlant28600.0 35000.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- 35000.0 -0.71 *
Rosa caninaFruit3740.0 20000.0 -0.72 *
Dodonaea viscosaBark-- 58000.0 -0.73 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit200.0 18000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- 18000.0 -0.74 Abstract (See species file)
Hippophae rhamnoidesShoot40000.0 50000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Jatropha curcasResin, Exudate, Sap116000.0 187000.0 -0.75 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.77 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoriaBark-- 52800.0 -0.77 Wealth of India.
Persea americanaLeaf-- 47000.0 -0.78 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Borago officinalisPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 *
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 46000.0 -0.79 *
Actinidia chinensisFruit-- 9500.0 -0.82 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 44000.0 -0.83 *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 8000.0 -0.83 *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- 6200.0 -0.85 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Turnera diffusaLeaf8400.0 40000.0 -0.86 *
Prosopis julifloraWood-- 9000.0 -0.87 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blancoBark30000.0 40000.0 -0.88 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.89 *
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Teucrium montanumPlant-- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus armeniacaFruit600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 36000.0 -0.91 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ammi majusSeed-- 4500.0 -0.94 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusBark-- 33000.0 -0.95 *
Ficus caricaStem Bark-- 5000.0 -0.95 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Cedrus deodoraLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Solanum tuberosumLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Cornus floridaBark-- 30000.0 -0.97 *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- 17000.0 -0.97 *
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 1100.0 -0.98 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf4400.0 30000.0 -0.98 *
Acacia niloticaBark-- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Pachira aquaticaBark-- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Juglans nigraPericarp33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Araucaria bidwilliiWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Marrubium vulgareFlower26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Argemone mexicanaPlant-- 11000.0 -1.06 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf18000.0 22000.0 -1.08 *
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Holarrhena pubescensBark-- 11400.0 -1.13 *
Ononis spinosaPlant-- 5000.0 -1.15 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- 4000.0 -1.16 *
Tsuga canadensisLeaf-- 15000.0 -1.17 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 11600.0 -1.21 *
Prunus persicaLeaf-- 8000.0 -1.25 *
Araucaria bidwilliiLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 *
Mercurialis annuaRoot-- 33500.0 -1.34 *
Gossypium spStem-- 17700.0 -1.36 *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 6000.0 -1.39 *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Althaea officinalisRoot-- 20000.0 -1.76 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Schisandra chinensisFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Teucrium marumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus infectoriaPlant-- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifoliaPlant-- -- *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 15000.0 *
Euphrasia officinalisShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Hedeoma pulegioidesPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Buxus sempervirensLeaf-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Euonymus atropurpureusRoot-- -- *
Lycopus virginicusPlant-- -- *
Eriodictyon californicumPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Stillingia sylvaticaPlant-- -- *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Yucca baccataRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- *
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissusRoot-- -- *
Genipa americanaFruit-- -- *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra nevadensisPlant-- -- *
Juglans cinereaBark-- -- *
Anaphalis margaritaceaPlant-- -- *
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidusPlant-- -- *
Vinca minorPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gentiana luteaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aesculus hippocastanumWood-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Catha edulisLeaf-- -- *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Genista tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Paeonia lactifloraRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Senecio aureusPlant-- -- *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Zanthoxylum americanumPlant-- -- *
Spigelia marilandicaPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Mitchella repensPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Senna alataLeaf-- -- *
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaPlant-- -- *
Morus albaStem-- -- *
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- 59000.0 *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Smilax chinaRoot-- -- *
Cydonia oblongaSeed-- -- *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar orientalisPlant-- -- *
Saussurea lappaRoot-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Carum carviPlant-- -- *
Cytisus scopariusFlower-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pistacia veraPlant-- -- *
Plantago psylliumPlant-- -- *
Malva neglectaFlower-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona reticulataBark-- -- *
Paeonia officinalisRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- -- *
Vitis viniferaSeed-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Cocos nuciferaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Guaiacum sp.Wood-- -- *
Adiantum capillus-venerisPlant-- -- *
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Psidium guajavaRoot-- -- *
Guarea rusbyiBark-- -- *
Marsdenia reichenbachiiPlant-- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Hydnocarpus kurziiSeed-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Schinus terebinthifoliusBark-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- -- *
Scutellaria churchillianaPlant-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Warburgia ugandensisBark-- -- *
Medicago sativaHay27000.0 28000.0 *
Tussilago farfaraRhizome-- -- *
Catharanthus roseusLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Ocimum sanctumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia tortilisBark-- -- *
Acacia tortilisLeaf-- -- *
Liquidambar styracifluaPlant-- -- *
Viola tricolorPlant-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cynara cardunculusPlant-- -- *
Bryonia albaRoot-- -- *
Asclepias syriacaSprout Seedling-- -- *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot-- -- *
Rhododendron ferrugineumLeaf-- -- *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalisHs-- 170000.0 *
Oenothera biennisHerb-- 110000.0 *
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Filipendula ulmariaLeaf-- -- *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tamarindus indicaBl-- 70000.0 *
Tamarindus indicaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Piper angustifoliumLeaf-- -- *
Cinchona officinalisBark-- -- *
Quercus suberCork20000.0 65000.0 *
Acacia leucophloeaPlant-- -- *
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- -- *
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Peucedanum ostruthiumRoot-- -- *
Swertia chirataPlant-- -- *
Mahonia aquifoliumPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Collinsonia canadensisPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aegle marmelosPetiole-- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia melanoxylonPlant-- -- *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tabernanthe ibogaRoot-- -- *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Armoracia rusticanaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Frangula alnusBark-- -- *
Nepeta catariaLeaf-- -- *
Tridax procumbensPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminataSeed-- -- *
Verbena officinalisPlant-- -- *
Phyllanthus emblicaTwig-- -- *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- -- *
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- *
Origanum creticumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Jatropha gossypifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Prunus spinosaFruit-- -- *
Veronica officinalisPlant-- -- *
Nigella sativaSeed-- -- *
Sterculia urensBark-- -- *
Sterculia urensGum-- 20000.0 *
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- *
Gleditsia triacanthosLeaf-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pausinystalia johimbeBark-- -- *
Apocynum cannabinumPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Gelsemium sempervirensRoot-- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamitaPlant-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus canadensisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.