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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia tortilisBark-- -- *
Acacia niloticaSeed-- 66100.0 -0.17 *
Acacia niloticaBark-- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia niloticaResin, Exudate, Sap170000.0 200000.0 -0.66 *
Acacia melanoxylonPlant-- -- *
Acacia tortilisLeaf-- -- *
Acacia niloticaWood-- 63500.0 0.4 *
Acacia niloticaFruit-- 349500.0 2.46 *
Acacia leucophloeaPlant-- -- *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant28000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 15000.0 *
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Actinidia chinensisFruit-- 9500.0 -0.82 *
Adiantum capillus-venerisPlant-- -- *
Aegle marmelosFruit-- 90000.0 -0.04 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aegle marmelosPetiole-- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aesculus hippocastanumWood-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot30000.0 210000.0 1.66 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf50000.0 80000.0 -0.37 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaBark-- 52800.0 -0.77 Wealth of India.
Ailanthus altissimaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Ajuga reptansPlant-- 150000.0 0.97 *
Albizia lebbeckBark70000.0 110000.0 -0.27 Wealth of India.
Albizia julibrissinBark-- -- *
Aleurites moluccanaBark40000.0 60000.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Alisma plantago-aquaticaPlant-- -- *
Alnus glutinosaBark-- 200000.0 0.52 *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Althaea officinalisRoot-- 20000.0 -1.76 *
Ammi majusSeed-- 4500.0 -0.94 *
Anacardium occidentaleBark-- 90000.0 -0.45 *
Anaphalis margaritaceaPlant-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Annona reticulataBark-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Anogeissus latifoliaLeaf322000.0 329000.0 2.67 *
Anogeissus latifoliaBark100000.0 150000.0 0.08 *
Apocynum cannabinumPlant-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Araucaria bidwilliiWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arbutus unedoLeaf-- 160000.0 0.6 *
Arbutus unedoBark-- 450000.0 2.7 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiPlant60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf6960.0 70000.0 -0.49 *
Areca catechuSeed150000.0 250000.0 2.11 *
Argemone mexicanaPlant-- 11000.0 -1.06 *
Armoracia rusticanaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf40000.0 77000.0 -0.41 *
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- *
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Artocarpus heterophyllusBark-- 33000.0 -0.95 *
Asclepias syriacaSprout Seedling-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 44000.0 -0.83 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blancoBark30000.0 40000.0 -0.88 *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- 120000.0 1.36 *
Azadirachta indicaStem Bark-- 60000.0 -0.43 *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- 55600.0 -0.38 Jim Duke's personal files.
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Borago officinalisPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 *
Bryonia albaRoot-- -- *
Buxus sempervirensLeaf-- -- *
Byrsonima crassifoliaBark172500.0 282600.0 1.24 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Calendula officinalisLeaf-- 64500.0 -0.56 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf33800.0 270000.0 1.95 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Carum carviPlant-- -- *
Castanea sativaBark40000.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Castanea sativaSeed20000.0 28000.0 -0.64 *
Castanea sativaLeaf-- 90000.0 -0.25 *
Catalpa bignonioidesBark-- 60000.0 -0.71 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Catha edulisLeaf-- -- *
Catharanthus roseusLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cedrus deodoraLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Ceiba pentandraBark-- 108200.0 -0.29 *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Ceratonia siliquaBark12000.0 500000.0 3.14 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.77 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifoliaPlant-- -- *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chrysanthemum balsamitaPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Cinchona officinalisBark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Cocos nuciferaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 90000.0 0.12 *
Cola acuminataSeed-- -- *
Collinsonia canadensisPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf100000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Cornus floridaBark-- 30000.0 -0.97 *
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Cuscuta europaeaRoot-- 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cydonia oblongaSeed-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusPlant-- -- *
Cytisus scopariusFlower-- -- *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- -- *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- 59800.0 -0.62 *
Dodonaea viscosaBark-- 58000.0 -0.73 *
Ephedra nevadensisPlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Eriodictyon californicumPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus citriodoraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 482000.0 1.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Eucalyptus corneaPlant-- 250000.0 2.43 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 11600.0 -1.21 *
Euonymus atropurpureusRoot-- -- *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalisShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Fallopia japonicaStem30000.0 130000.0 1.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonicaLeaf170000.0 240000.0 1.58 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 36000.0 -0.91 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ficus caricaStem Bark-- 5000.0 -0.95 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Filipendula ulmariaLeaf-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaRoot-- 86200.0 0.3 *
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- 93100.0 -0.09 *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- *
Frangula alnusBark-- -- *
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- *
Gelsemium sempervirensRoot-- -- *
Genipa americanaFruit-- -- *
Genista tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Gentiana luteaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Gleditsia triacanthosLeaf-- -- *
Gossypium spStem-- 17700.0 -1.36 *
Guaiacum sp.Wood-- -- *
Guarea rusbyiBark-- -- *
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- 100000.0 1.24 *
Hamelia patensBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Hedeoma pulegioidesPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- 18000.0 -0.74 Abstract (See species file)
Hippophae rhamnoidesShoot40000.0 50000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Holarrhena pubescensBark-- 11400.0 -1.13 *
Hydnocarpus kurziiSeed-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant50000.0 80000.0 -0.05 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot-- -- *
Jatropha curcasResin, Exudate, Sap116000.0 187000.0 -0.75 *
Jatropha gossypifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Juglans regiaLeaf90000.0 110000.0 -0.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans nigraFruit-- 147000.0 0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans regiaFruit-- 122000.0 0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans cinereaBark-- -- *
Juglans nigraPericarp33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Juglans regiaBark53000.0 75100.0 -0.58 *
Juniperus virginianaBark21000.0 86000.0 -0.48 *
Juniperus communisFruit-- 50000.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Lagochilus inebriansPlant20000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower50000.0 120000.0 0.53 *
Lavandula angustifoliaPlant-- 120000.0 0.53 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Leonurus cardiacaPlant21000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- -- *
Ligustrum vulgareBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Ligustrum vulgareLeaf60000.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar styracifluaPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar orientalisPlant-- -- *
Lonicera japonicaPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Lycopus virginicusPlant-- -- *
Lythrum salicariaStem-- 105000.0 0.65 *
Lythrum salicariaFlower-- 137000.0 0.82 *
Lythrum salicariaRoot-- 85000.0 0.27 *
Lythrum salicariaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Maclura pomiferaWood90000.0 100000.0 1.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mahonia aquifoliumPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Malva neglectaFlower-- -- *
Mangifera indicaFlower-- 150000.0 1.04 *
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 1100.0 -0.98 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit31600.0 64500.0 -0.29 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Marrubium vulgareFlower26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Marsdenia reichenbachiiPlant-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Medicago sativaHay27000.0 28000.0 *
Melia azedarachBark180000.0 260000.0 1.04 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit18800.0 60225.0 -0.33 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- *
Mentha aquaticaLeaf-- 74000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mercurialis annuaRoot-- 33500.0 -1.34 *
Mimosa pudicaRoot-- 100000.0 0.73 *
Mitchella repensPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Morus albaStem-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- 4000.0 -1.16 *
Myrtus communisPlant-- 140000.0 0.82 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nepeta catariaLeaf-- -- *
Nigella sativaSeed-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ocimum sanctumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Oenothera biennisHerb-- 110000.0 *
Ononis spinosaPlant-- 5000.0 -1.15 *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Origanum creticumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pachira aquaticaBark-- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia lactifloraRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Paeonia officinalisRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Pausinystalia johimbeBark-- -- *
Persea americanaLeaf-- 47000.0 -0.78 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peucedanum ostruthiumRoot-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit200.0 18000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Phyllanthus emblicaTwig-- -- *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 280000.0 1.79 *
Phyllanthus emblicaBark80000.0 166400.0 0.22 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf18000.0 22000.0 -1.08 *
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Pinus insularisBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- 169000.0 0.24 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus kesiyaBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Piper angustifoliumLeaf-- -- *
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Pistacia veraPlant-- -- *
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- 113000.0 0.03 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Plantago majorPlant40000.0 57000.0 -0.39 *
Plantago psylliumPlant-- -- *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- 17000.0 -0.97 *
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- 35000.0 -0.71 *
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Prosopis julifloraBark6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Prosopis julifloraWood-- 9000.0 -0.87 *
Prosopis julifloraRoot-- 67000.0 -0.29 *
Prunella vulgarisPlant45000.0 105800.0 0.32 *
Prunus persicaLeaf-- 8000.0 -1.25 *
Prunus domesticaBark-- 68000.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus spinosaFruit-- -- *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 8000.0 -0.83 *
Prunus cerasusBark50000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- *
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Psidium guajavaBark110000.0 300000.0 1.39 *
Psidium guajavaRoot-- -- *
Psidium guajavaLeaf90000.0 100000.0 -0.13 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumRoot Bark20000.0 280000.0 0.85 *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatumPericarp104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Punica granatumStem Bark100000.0 250000.0 1.38 *
Punica granatumLeaf-- 110000.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatumRoot-- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Quercus suberCork20000.0 65000.0 *
Quercus infectoriaPlant-- -- *
Quercus rubraBark-- 160000.0 0.17 *
Quercus albaBark78500.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Quercus roburBark80000.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Rhizophora mangleBark10000.0 520000.0 3.31 *
Rhododendron ponticumLeaf50000.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Rhododendron ferrugineumLeaf-- -- *
Rhus coriariaLeaf210000.0 280000.0 2.07 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Rhus glabraLeaf-- 270000.0 1.95 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Robinia pseudoacaciaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Rosa caninaFruit3740.0 20000.0 -0.72 *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rubus idaeusLeaf16900.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- 6200.0 -0.85 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant180000.0 350000.0 3.89 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rumex crispusRoot30000.0 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex acetosellaRoot80000.0 140000.0 1.98 *
Salix albaBark20160.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Salvia officinalisPlant20000.0 80000.0 -0.05 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf4400.0 30000.0 -0.98 *
Sambucus canadensisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalisHs-- 170000.0 *
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- 170000.0 1.26 *
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissusRoot-- -- *
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja hortensisPlant40000.0 85000.0 0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Saussurea lappaRoot-- -- *
Schinus terebinthifoliusBark-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Schinus molleBark-- 230000.0 0.78 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Sclerocarya caffraLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Sclerocarya caffraBark35000.0 100000.0 -0.36 *
Scutellaria churchillianaPlant-- -- *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria galericulataPlant28600.0 35000.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Senecio aureusPlant-- -- *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- -- *
Senna alataLeaf-- -- *
Serenoa repensRoot-- 75800.0 -0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Serenoa repensStem-- 54800.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Simarouba amaraBark200000.0 270000.0 1.13 *
Smilax chinaRoot-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Solanum nigrumPlant70000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.89 *
Spigelia marilandicaPlant-- -- *
Stachys officinalisPlant25200.0 150000.0 0.97 *
Sterculia urensBark-- -- *
Sterculia urensGum-- 20000.0 *
Stillingia sylvaticaPlant-- -- *
Swertia chirataPlant-- -- *
Symphytum officinalePlant80000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Symplocarpus foetidusPlant-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Tabernanthe ibogaRoot-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaBl-- 70000.0 *
Tamarindus indicaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Tamarindus indicaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Terminalia chebulaFruit1090.0 355000.0 2.51 *
Terminalia arjunaFruit70000.0 120000.0 0.25 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia catappaBark-- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia belliricaFruit170000.0 214000.0 1.15 *
Terminalia arjunaBark-- 158000.0 0.15 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia belliricaBark14000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia catappaFruit60000.0 200000.0 1.02 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Teucrium marumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanumPlant-- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium scorodoniaLeaf80000.0 90000.0 -0.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- 59000.0 *
Thymus serpyllumPlant50000.0 75000.0 -0.13 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus vulgarisLeaf16800.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant80000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Tridax procumbensPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tsuga canadensisBark100000.0 150500.0 0.08 *
Tsuga canadensisRoot Bark-- 245000.0 0.55 *
Tsuga canadensisLeaf-- 15000.0 -1.17 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf8400.0 40000.0 -0.86 *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 6000.0 -1.39 *
Tussilago farfaraRhizome-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- 170000.0 0.73 *
Ulmus rubraBark30000.0 65000.0 -0.67 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf59700.0 133000.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit50000.0 120000.0 0.25 *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Verbena officinalisPlant-- -- *
Veronica officinalisPlant-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 30000.0 -0.62 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vinca minorPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Viola tricolorPlant-- -- *
Vitis viniferaSeed-- -- *
Warburgia ugandensisBark-- -- *
Yucca baccataRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zanthoxylum americanumPlant-- -- *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 100000.0 0.05 *
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 46000.0 -0.79 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.