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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia niloticaResin, Exudate, Sap170000.0 200000.0 -0.66 *
Acacia melanoxylonPlant-- -- *
Acacia tortilisLeaf-- -- *
Acacia niloticaWood-- 63500.0 0.4 *
Acacia niloticaFruit-- 349500.0 2.46 *
Acacia leucophloeaPlant-- -- *
Acacia tortilisBark-- -- *
Acacia niloticaSeed-- 66100.0 -0.17 *
Acacia niloticaBark-- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant28000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 15000.0 *
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Actinidia chinensisFruit-- 9500.0 -0.82 *
Adiantum capillus-venerisPlant-- -- *
Aegle marmelosPetiole-- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aegle marmelosFruit-- 90000.0 -0.04 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aesculus hippocastanumWood-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf50000.0 80000.0 -0.37 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaBark-- 52800.0 -0.77 Wealth of India.
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot30000.0 210000.0 1.66 *
Ailanthus altissimaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Ajuga reptansPlant-- 150000.0 0.97 *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- -- *
Albizia lebbeckBark70000.0 110000.0 -0.27 Wealth of India.
Aleurites moluccanaBark40000.0 60000.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Alisma plantago-aquaticaPlant-- -- *
Alnus glutinosaBark-- 200000.0 0.52 *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Althaea officinalisRoot-- 20000.0 -1.76 *
Ammi majusSeed-- 4500.0 -0.94 *
Anacardium occidentaleBark-- 90000.0 -0.45 *
Anaphalis margaritaceaPlant-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona reticulataBark-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Anogeissus latifoliaLeaf322000.0 329000.0 2.67 *
Anogeissus latifoliaBark100000.0 150000.0 0.08 *
Apocynum cannabinumPlant-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Araucaria bidwilliiLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arbutus unedoLeaf-- 160000.0 0.6 *
Arbutus unedoBark-- 450000.0 2.7 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf6960.0 70000.0 -0.49 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiPlant60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Areca catechuSeed150000.0 250000.0 2.11 *
Argemone mexicanaPlant-- 11000.0 -1.06 *
Armoracia rusticanaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- *
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf40000.0 77000.0 -0.41 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusBark-- 33000.0 -0.95 *
Asclepias syriacaSprout Seedling-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 44000.0 -0.83 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blancoBark30000.0 40000.0 -0.88 *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- 120000.0 1.36 *
Azadirachta indicaStem Bark-- 60000.0 -0.43 *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- 55600.0 -0.38 Jim Duke's personal files.
Borago officinalisPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 *
Bryonia albaRoot-- -- *
Buxus sempervirensLeaf-- -- *
Byrsonima crassifoliaBark172500.0 282600.0 1.24 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 *
Calendula officinalisLeaf-- 64500.0 -0.56 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf33800.0 270000.0 1.95 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Carum carviPlant-- -- *
Castanea sativaSeed20000.0 28000.0 -0.64 *
Castanea sativaLeaf-- 90000.0 -0.25 *
Castanea sativaBark40000.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Catalpa bignonioidesBark-- 60000.0 -0.71 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Catha edulisLeaf-- -- *
Catharanthus roseusLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cedrus deodoraLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Ceiba pentandraBark-- 108200.0 -0.29 *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Ceratonia siliquaBark12000.0 500000.0 3.14 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.77 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifoliaPlant-- -- *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chrysanthemum balsamitaPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Cinchona officinalisBark-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Cocos nuciferaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 90000.0 0.12 *
Cola acuminataSeed-- -- *
Collinsonia canadensisPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf100000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Cornus floridaBark-- 30000.0 -0.97 *
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Cuscuta europaeaRoot-- 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cydonia oblongaSeed-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusPlant-- -- *
Cytisus scopariusFlower-- -- *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- -- *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- 59800.0 -0.62 *
Dodonaea viscosaBark-- 58000.0 -0.73 *
Ephedra nevadensisPlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Eriodictyon californicumPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus corneaPlant-- 250000.0 2.43 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 11600.0 -1.21 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 482000.0 1.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Euonymus atropurpureusRoot-- -- *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalisShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Fallopia japonicaStem30000.0 130000.0 1.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonicaLeaf170000.0 240000.0 1.58 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaStem Bark-- 5000.0 -0.95 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 36000.0 -0.91 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Filipendula ulmariaRoot-- 86200.0 0.3 *
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- 93100.0 -0.09 *
Filipendula ulmariaLeaf-- -- *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- *
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Frangula alnusBark-- -- *
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- *
Gelsemium sempervirensRoot-- -- *
Genipa americanaFruit-- -- *
Genista tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Gentiana luteaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Gleditsia triacanthosLeaf-- -- *
Gossypium spStem-- 17700.0 -1.36 *
Guaiacum sp.Wood-- -- *
Guarea rusbyiBark-- -- *
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- 100000.0 1.24 *
Hamelia patensBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Hedeoma pulegioidesPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hippophae rhamnoidesShoot40000.0 50000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- 18000.0 -0.74 Abstract (See species file)
Holarrhena pubescensBark-- 11400.0 -1.13 *
Hydnocarpus kurziiSeed-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant50000.0 80000.0 -0.05 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot-- -- *
Jatropha gossypifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Jatropha curcasResin, Exudate, Sap116000.0 187000.0 -0.75 *
Juglans regiaFruit-- 122000.0 0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans cinereaBark-- -- *
Juglans nigraPericarp33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Juglans regiaBark53000.0 75100.0 -0.58 *
Juglans regiaLeaf90000.0 110000.0 -0.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans nigraFruit-- 147000.0 0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juniperus virginianaBark21000.0 86000.0 -0.48 *
Juniperus communisFruit-- 50000.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Lagochilus inebriansPlant20000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Lavandula angustifoliaPlant-- 120000.0 0.53 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower50000.0 120000.0 0.53 *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant21000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- -- *
Ligustrum vulgareLeaf60000.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Ligustrum vulgareBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar orientalisPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar styracifluaPlant-- -- *
Lonicera japonicaPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Lycopus virginicusPlant-- -- *
Lythrum salicariaRoot-- 85000.0 0.27 *
Lythrum salicariaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Lythrum salicariaStem-- 105000.0 0.65 *
Lythrum salicariaFlower-- 137000.0 0.82 *
Maclura pomiferaWood90000.0 100000.0 1.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mahonia aquifoliumPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Malva neglectaFlower-- -- *
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 1100.0 -0.98 *
Mangifera indicaFlower-- 150000.0 1.04 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit31600.0 64500.0 -0.29 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Marrubium vulgareFlower26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Marsdenia reichenbachiiPlant-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Medicago sativaHay27000.0 28000.0 *
Melia azedarachBark180000.0 260000.0 1.04 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit18800.0 60225.0 -0.33 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- *
Mentha aquaticaLeaf-- 74000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 *
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mercurialis annuaRoot-- 33500.0 -1.34 *
Mimosa pudicaRoot-- 100000.0 0.73 *
Mitchella repensPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Morus albaStem-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- 4000.0 -1.16 *
Myrtus communisPlant-- 140000.0 0.82 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nepeta catariaLeaf-- -- *
Nigella sativaSeed-- -- *
Ocimum sanctumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Oenothera biennisHerb-- 110000.0 *
Ononis spinosaPlant-- 5000.0 -1.15 *
Origanum creticumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pachira aquaticaBark-- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia lactifloraRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Paeonia officinalisRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Pausinystalia johimbeBark-- -- *
Persea americanaLeaf-- 47000.0 -0.78 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peucedanum ostruthiumRoot-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit200.0 18000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 280000.0 1.79 *
Phyllanthus emblicaBark80000.0 166400.0 0.22 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf18000.0 22000.0 -1.08 *
Phyllanthus emblicaTwig-- -- *
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Pinus kesiyaBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus insularisBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- 169000.0 0.24 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Piper angustifoliumLeaf-- -- *
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Pistacia veraPlant-- -- *
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- 113000.0 0.03 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Plantago psylliumPlant-- -- *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Plantago majorPlant40000.0 57000.0 -0.39 *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- 17000.0 -0.97 *
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- 35000.0 -0.71 *
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Prosopis julifloraWood-- 9000.0 -0.87 *
Prosopis julifloraRoot-- 67000.0 -0.29 *
Prosopis julifloraBark6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Prunella vulgarisPlant45000.0 105800.0 0.32 *
Prunus spinosaFruit-- -- *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 8000.0 -0.83 *
Prunus cerasusBark50000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- *
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Prunus persicaLeaf-- 8000.0 -1.25 *
Prunus domesticaBark-- 68000.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Psidium guajavaRoot-- -- *
Psidium guajavaLeaf90000.0 100000.0 -0.13 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Psidium guajavaBark110000.0 300000.0 1.39 *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumPericarp104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Punica granatumStem Bark100000.0 250000.0 1.38 *
Punica granatumLeaf-- 110000.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatumRoot-- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Punica granatumRoot Bark20000.0 280000.0 0.85 *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Quercus rubraBark-- 160000.0 0.17 *
Quercus albaBark78500.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Quercus roburBark80000.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Quercus suberCork20000.0 65000.0 *
Quercus infectoriaPlant-- -- *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Rhizophora mangleBark10000.0 520000.0 3.31 *
Rhododendron ferrugineumLeaf-- -- *
Rhododendron ponticumLeaf50000.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Rhus coriariaLeaf210000.0 280000.0 2.07 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Rhus glabraLeaf-- 270000.0 1.95 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Robinia pseudoacaciaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Rosa caninaFruit3740.0 20000.0 -0.72 *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rubus idaeusFruit-- 6200.0 -0.85 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Rubus idaeusLeaf16900.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Rumex crispusRoot30000.0 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex acetosellaRoot80000.0 140000.0 1.98 *
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant180000.0 350000.0 3.89 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Salix albaBark20160.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Salvia officinalisPlant20000.0 80000.0 -0.05 *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sambucus nigraLeaf4400.0 30000.0 -0.98 *
Sambucus canadensisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sanguisorba officinalisHs-- 170000.0 *
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- 170000.0 1.26 *
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissusRoot-- -- *
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja hortensisPlant40000.0 85000.0 0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Saussurea lappaRoot-- -- *
Schinus molleBark-- 230000.0 0.78 *
Schinus terebinthifoliusBark-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Schisandra chinensisFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Sclerocarya caffraLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Sclerocarya caffraBark35000.0 100000.0 -0.36 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria galericulataPlant28600.0 35000.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Scutellaria churchillianaPlant-- -- *
Senecio aureusPlant-- -- *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- -- *
Senna alataLeaf-- -- *
Serenoa repensStem-- 54800.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Serenoa repensRoot-- 75800.0 -0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Simarouba amaraBark200000.0 270000.0 1.13 *
Smilax chinaRoot-- -- *
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Solanum nigrumPlant70000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.89 *
Solanum tuberosumLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Spigelia marilandicaPlant-- -- *
Stachys officinalisPlant25200.0 150000.0 0.97 *
Sterculia urensGum-- 20000.0 *
Sterculia urensBark-- -- *
Stillingia sylvaticaPlant-- -- *
Swertia chirataPlant-- -- *
Symphytum officinalePlant80000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Symplocarpus foetidusPlant-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Tabernanthe ibogaRoot-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Tamarindus indicaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indicaBl-- 70000.0 *
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Terminalia belliricaFruit170000.0 214000.0 1.15 *
Terminalia arjunaBark-- 158000.0 0.15 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia belliricaBark14000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia catappaFruit60000.0 200000.0 1.02 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Terminalia chebulaFruit1090.0 355000.0 2.51 *
Terminalia arjunaFruit70000.0 120000.0 0.25 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia catappaBark-- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanumPlant-- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scorodoniaLeaf80000.0 90000.0 -0.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium marumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- 59000.0 *
Thymus vulgarisLeaf16800.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant80000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Thymus serpyllumPlant50000.0 75000.0 -0.13 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Tridax procumbensPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tsuga canadensisRoot Bark-- 245000.0 0.55 *
Tsuga canadensisLeaf-- 15000.0 -1.17 *
Tsuga canadensisBark100000.0 150500.0 0.08 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf8400.0 40000.0 -0.86 *
Tussilago farfaraRhizome-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- 170000.0 0.73 *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 6000.0 -1.39 *
Ulmus rubraBark30000.0 65000.0 -0.67 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf59700.0 133000.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit50000.0 120000.0 0.25 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Verbena officinalisPlant-- -- *
Veronica officinalisPlant-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 30000.0 -0.62 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vinca minorPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Viola tricolorPlant-- -- *
Vitis viniferaSeed-- -- *
Warburgia ugandensisBark-- -- *
Yucca baccataRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zanthoxylum americanumPlant-- -- *
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 46000.0 -0.79 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 100000.0 0.05 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.