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Paginate rows. Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Rhizophora mangleBark10000.0 520000.0 3.31 *
Ceratonia siliquaBark12000.0 500000.0 3.14 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 482000.0 1.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Arbutus unedoBark-- 450000.0 2.7 *
Terminalia chebulaFruit1090.0 355000.0 2.51 *
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant180000.0 350000.0 3.89 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Acacia niloticaFruit-- 349500.0 2.46 *
Punica granatumPericarp104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Anogeissus latifoliaLeaf322000.0 329000.0 2.67 *
Psidium guajavaBark110000.0 300000.0 1.39 *
Byrsonima crassifoliaBark172500.0 282600.0 1.24 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Juglans nigraPericarp33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Rhus coriariaLeaf210000.0 280000.0 2.07 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Punica granatumRoot Bark20000.0 280000.0 0.85 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 280000.0 1.79 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf33800.0 270000.0 1.95 *
Rhus glabraLeaf-- 270000.0 1.95 *
Simarouba amaraBark200000.0 270000.0 1.13 *
Melia azedarachBark180000.0 260000.0 1.04 *
Areca catechuSeed150000.0 250000.0 2.11 *
Eucalyptus corneaPlant-- 250000.0 2.43 *
Punica granatumStem Bark100000.0 250000.0 1.38 *
Tsuga canadensisRoot Bark-- 245000.0 0.55 *
Fallopia japonicaLeaf170000.0 240000.0 1.58 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Schinus molleBark-- 230000.0 0.78 *
Terminalia belliricaFruit170000.0 214000.0 1.15 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot30000.0 210000.0 1.66 *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Acacia niloticaResin, Exudate, Sap170000.0 200000.0 -0.66 *
Sclerocarya caffraLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Quercus roburBark80000.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Terminalia catappaFruit60000.0 200000.0 1.02 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Alnus glutinosaBark-- 200000.0 0.52 *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf100000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Aegle marmelosPetiole-- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiPlant60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Quercus albaBark78500.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Jatropha curcasResin, Exudate, Sap116000.0 187000.0 -0.75 *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- 170000.0 0.73 *
Sanguisorba officinalisHs-- 170000.0 *
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- 170000.0 1.26 *
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- 169000.0 0.24 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phyllanthus emblicaBark80000.0 166400.0 0.22 *
Arbutus unedoLeaf-- 160000.0 0.6 *
Quercus rubraBark-- 160000.0 0.17 *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Terminalia arjunaBark-- 158000.0 0.15 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tsuga canadensisBark100000.0 150500.0 0.08 *
Anogeissus latifoliaBark100000.0 150000.0 0.08 *
Mangifera indicaFlower-- 150000.0 1.04 *
Stachys officinalisPlant25200.0 150000.0 0.97 *
Ajuga reptansPlant-- 150000.0 0.97 *
Hamelia patensBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 147000.0 0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex acetosellaRoot80000.0 140000.0 1.98 *
Myrtus communisPlant-- 140000.0 0.82 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lythrum salicariaFlower-- 137000.0 0.82 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf59700.0 133000.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Terminalia catappaBark-- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonicaStem30000.0 130000.0 1.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans regiaFruit-- 122000.0 0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit50000.0 120000.0 0.25 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf16900.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Lythrum salicariaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower50000.0 120000.0 0.53 *
Lavandula angustifoliaPlant-- 120000.0 0.53 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Salix albaBark20160.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- 120000.0 1.36 *
Terminalia arjunaFruit70000.0 120000.0 0.25 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ailanthus altissimaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Rhododendron ponticumLeaf50000.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Castanea sativaBark40000.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- 113000.0 0.03 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Albizia lebbeckBark70000.0 110000.0 -0.27 Wealth of India.
Oenothera biennisHerb-- 110000.0 *
Punica granatumLeaf-- 110000.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans regiaLeaf90000.0 110000.0 -0.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ceiba pentandraBark-- 108200.0 -0.29 *
Prunella vulgarisPlant45000.0 105800.0 0.32 *
Lythrum salicariaStem-- 105000.0 0.65 *
Pinus kesiyaBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Maclura pomiferaWood90000.0 100000.0 1.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sclerocarya caffraBark35000.0 100000.0 -0.36 *
Solanum nigrumPlant70000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Thymus vulgarisLeaf16800.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Pinus insularisBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ligustrum vulgareLeaf60000.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Psidium guajavaLeaf90000.0 100000.0 -0.13 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- 100000.0 1.24 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant80000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Mimosa pudicaRoot-- 100000.0 0.73 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 100000.0 0.05 *
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- 93100.0 -0.09 *
Teucrium scorodoniaLeaf80000.0 90000.0 -0.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Symphytum officinalePlant80000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Anacardium occidentaleBark-- 90000.0 -0.45 *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant21000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 90000.0 0.12 *
Aegle marmelosFruit-- 90000.0 -0.04 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Castanea sativaLeaf-- 90000.0 -0.25 *
Filipendula ulmariaRoot-- 86200.0 0.3 *
Juniperus virginianaBark21000.0 86000.0 -0.48 *
Lythrum salicariaRoot-- 85000.0 0.27 *
Satureja hortensisPlant40000.0 85000.0 0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prosopis julifloraBark6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Lonicera japonicaPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Salvia officinalisPlant20000.0 80000.0 -0.05 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf50000.0 80000.0 -0.37 *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant50000.0 80000.0 -0.05 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf40000.0 77000.0 -0.41 *
Serenoa repensRoot-- 75800.0 -0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans regiaBark53000.0 75100.0 -0.58 *
Thymus serpyllumPlant50000.0 75000.0 -0.13 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha aquaticaLeaf-- 74000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tamarindus indicaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Robinia pseudoacaciaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Punica granatumRoot-- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ligustrum vulgareBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Prunus cerasusBark50000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf6960.0 70000.0 -0.49 *
Tamarindus indicaBl-- 70000.0 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Terminalia belliricaBark14000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus domesticaBark-- 68000.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prosopis julifloraRoot-- 67000.0 -0.29 *
Acacia niloticaSeed-- 66100.0 -0.17 *
Quercus suberCork20000.0 65000.0 *
Ulmus rubraBark30000.0 65000.0 -0.67 *
Calendula officinalisLeaf-- 64500.0 -0.56 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit31600.0 64500.0 -0.29 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Acacia niloticaWood-- 63500.0 0.4 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit18800.0 60225.0 -0.33 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aleurites moluccanaBark40000.0 60000.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Catalpa bignonioidesBark-- 60000.0 -0.71 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuscuta europaeaRoot-- 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex crispusRoot30000.0 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Azadirachta indicaStem Bark-- 60000.0 -0.43 *
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- 59800.0 -0.62 *
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- 59000.0 *
Dodonaea viscosaBark-- 58000.0 -0.73 *
Plantago majorPlant40000.0 57000.0 -0.39 *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- 55600.0 -0.38 Jim Duke's personal files.
Serenoa repensStem-- 54800.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoriaBark-- 52800.0 -0.77 Wealth of India.
Hippophae rhamnoidesShoot40000.0 50000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juniperus communisFruit-- 50000.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Persea americanaLeaf-- 47000.0 -0.78 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 46000.0 -0.79 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 44000.0 -0.83 *
Lagochilus inebriansPlant20000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant28000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf8400.0 40000.0 -0.86 *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aspidosperma quebracho-blancoBark30000.0 40000.0 -0.88 *
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 36000.0 -0.91 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Scutellaria galericulataPlant28600.0 35000.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- 35000.0 -0.71 *
Mercurialis annuaRoot-- 33500.0 -1.34 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusBark-- 33000.0 -0.95 *
Cedrus deodoraLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Solanum tuberosumLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf4400.0 30000.0 -0.98 *
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 30000.0 -0.62 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cornus floridaBark-- 30000.0 -0.97 *
Borago officinalisPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 *
Marrubium vulgareFlower26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Medicago sativaHay27000.0 28000.0 *
Castanea sativaSeed20000.0 28000.0 -0.64 *
Acacia niloticaBark-- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Pachira aquaticaBark-- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Teucrium montanumPlant-- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf18000.0 22000.0 -1.08 *
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Althaea officinalisRoot-- 20000.0 -1.76 *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rosa caninaFruit3740.0 20000.0 -0.72 *
Sterculia urensGum-- 20000.0 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit200.0 18000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- 18000.0 -0.74 Abstract (See species file)
Gossypium spStem-- 17700.0 -1.36 *
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- 17000.0 -0.97 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 15000.0 *
Tsuga canadensisLeaf-- 15000.0 -1.17 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.77 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 11600.0 -1.21 *
Holarrhena pubescensBark-- 11400.0 -1.13 *
Argemone mexicanaPlant-- 11000.0 -1.06 *
Actinidia chinensisFruit-- 9500.0 -0.82 *
Prosopis julifloraWood-- 9000.0 -0.87 *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 8000.0 -0.83 *
Prunus persicaLeaf-- 8000.0 -1.25 *
Araucaria bidwilliiLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- 6200.0 -0.85 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 6000.0 -1.39 *
Ononis spinosaPlant-- 5000.0 -1.15 *
Ficus caricaStem Bark-- 5000.0 -0.95 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ammi majusSeed-- 4500.0 -0.94 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- 4000.0 -1.16 *
Araucaria bidwilliiWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.89 *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 1100.0 -0.98 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Schisandra chinensisFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Teucrium marumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus infectoriaPlant-- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifoliaPlant-- -- *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalisShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Hedeoma pulegioidesPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Buxus sempervirensLeaf-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Euonymus atropurpureusRoot-- -- *
Lycopus virginicusPlant-- -- *
Eriodictyon californicumPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Stillingia sylvaticaPlant-- -- *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Yucca baccataRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- *
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissusRoot-- -- *
Genipa americanaFruit-- -- *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra nevadensisPlant-- -- *
Juglans cinereaBark-- -- *
Anaphalis margaritaceaPlant-- -- *
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidusPlant-- -- *
Vinca minorPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gentiana luteaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aesculus hippocastanumWood-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Catha edulisLeaf-- -- *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Genista tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Paeonia lactifloraRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Senecio aureusPlant-- -- *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Zanthoxylum americanumPlant-- -- *
Spigelia marilandicaPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Mitchella repensPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Senna alataLeaf-- -- *
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaPlant-- -- *
Morus albaStem-- -- *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Smilax chinaRoot-- -- *
Cydonia oblongaSeed-- -- *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar orientalisPlant-- -- *
Saussurea lappaRoot-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Carum carviPlant-- -- *
Cytisus scopariusFlower-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pistacia veraPlant-- -- *
Plantago psylliumPlant-- -- *
Malva neglectaFlower-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona reticulataBark-- -- *
Paeonia officinalisRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- -- *
Vitis viniferaSeed-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Cocos nuciferaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Guaiacum sp.Wood-- -- *
Adiantum capillus-venerisPlant-- -- *
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Psidium guajavaRoot-- -- *
Guarea rusbyiBark-- -- *
Marsdenia reichenbachiiPlant-- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Hydnocarpus kurziiSeed-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Schinus terebinthifoliusBark-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- -- *
Scutellaria churchillianaPlant-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Warburgia ugandensisBark-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraRhizome-- -- *
Catharanthus roseusLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Ocimum sanctumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia tortilisBark-- -- *
Acacia tortilisLeaf-- -- *
Liquidambar styracifluaPlant-- -- *
Viola tricolorPlant-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cynara cardunculusPlant-- -- *
Bryonia albaRoot-- -- *
Asclepias syriacaSprout Seedling-- -- *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot-- -- *
Rhododendron ferrugineumLeaf-- -- *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Filipendula ulmariaLeaf-- -- *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tamarindus indicaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Piper angustifoliumLeaf-- -- *
Cinchona officinalisBark-- -- *
Acacia leucophloeaPlant-- -- *
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- -- *
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Peucedanum ostruthiumRoot-- -- *
Swertia chirataPlant-- -- *
Mahonia aquifoliumPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Collinsonia canadensisPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Acacia melanoxylonPlant-- -- *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tabernanthe ibogaRoot-- -- *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Armoracia rusticanaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Frangula alnusBark-- -- *
Nepeta catariaLeaf-- -- *
Tridax procumbensPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminataSeed-- -- *
Verbena officinalisPlant-- -- *
Phyllanthus emblicaTwig-- -- *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- -- *
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- *
Origanum creticumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Jatropha gossypifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Prunus spinosaFruit-- -- *
Veronica officinalisPlant-- -- *
Nigella sativaSeed-- -- *
Sterculia urensBark-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- *
Gleditsia triacanthosLeaf-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pausinystalia johimbeBark-- -- *
Apocynum cannabinumPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Gelsemium sempervirensRoot-- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamitaPlant-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus canadensisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.