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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 11600.0 -1.21 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Cedrus deodoraLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Schisandra chinensisFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Santalum albumWood-- -- *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- 6200.0 -0.85 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium marumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus infectoriaPlant-- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifoliaPlant-- -- *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 15000.0 *
Lonicera japonicaPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Euphrasia officinalisShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- 113000.0 0.03 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Hedeoma pulegioidesPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pogostemon cablinPlant-- 17000.0 -0.97 *
Buxus sempervirensLeaf-- -- *
Calendula officinalisLeaf-- 64500.0 -0.56 *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Mangifera indicaFlower-- 150000.0 1.04 *
Euonymus atropurpureusRoot-- -- *
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 1100.0 -0.98 *
Prunus domesticaBark-- 68000.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lycopus virginicusPlant-- -- *
Eriodictyon californicumPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Stillingia sylvaticaPlant-- -- *
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.89 *
Yucca baccataRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- *
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissusRoot-- -- *
Genipa americanaFruit-- -- *
Ballota nigraPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Arbutus unedoBark-- 450000.0 2.7 *
Ephedra nevadensisPlant-- -- *
Juglans cinereaBark-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anaphalis margaritaceaPlant-- -- *
Arbutus unedoLeaf-- 160000.0 0.6 *
Araucaria bidwilliiWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoriaBark-- 52800.0 -0.77 Wealth of India.
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidusPlant-- -- *
Vinca minorPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gentiana luteaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Acacia niloticaBark-- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Aesculus hippocastanumWood-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Rhus glabraLeaf-- 270000.0 1.95 *
Acacia niloticaFruit-- 349500.0 2.46 *
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Acacia niloticaSeed-- 66100.0 -0.17 *
Artemisia cinaFlower-- -- *
Catha edulisLeaf-- -- *
Tsuga canadensisLeaf-- 15000.0 -1.17 *
Acacia niloticaWood-- 63500.0 0.4 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaLeaf-- 7000.0 -1.26 *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Tsuga canadensisRoot Bark-- 245000.0 0.55 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaWood-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Sclerocarya caffraLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Genista tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Paeonia lactifloraRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Senecio aureusPlant-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Catalpa bignonioidesBark-- 60000.0 -0.71 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Persea americanaLeaf-- 47000.0 -0.78 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zanthoxylum americanumPlant-- -- *
Spigelia marilandicaPlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Mitchella repensPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Conyza canadensisPlant-- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 *
Senna alataLeaf-- -- *
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Artocarpus heterophyllusBark-- 33000.0 -0.95 *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaPlant-- -- *
Argemone mexicanaPlant-- 11000.0 -1.06 *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Morus albaStem-- -- *
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- 59000.0 *
Gossypium spStem-- 17700.0 -1.36 *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Anacardium occidentaleBark-- 90000.0 -0.45 *
Actinidia chinensisFruit-- 9500.0 -0.82 *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Smilax chinaRoot-- -- *
Cydonia oblongaSeed-- -- *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Liquidambar orientalisPlant-- -- *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- 80000.0 -0.05 *
Saussurea lappaRoot-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- 4000.0 -1.16 *
Althaea officinalisRoot-- 20000.0 -1.76 *
Carum carviPlant-- -- *
Cytisus scopariusFlower-- -- *
Terminalia catappaBark-- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Lythrum salicariaFlower-- 137000.0 0.82 *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pistacia veraPlant-- -- *
Plantago psylliumPlant-- -- *
Lythrum salicariaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Lythrum salicariaRoot-- 85000.0 0.27 *
Prosopis julifloraRoot-- 67000.0 -0.29 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.77 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lythrum salicariaStem-- 105000.0 0.65 *
Prosopis julifloraWood-- 9000.0 -0.87 *
Malva neglectaFlower-- -- *
Lavandula angustifoliaPlant-- 120000.0 0.53 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Robinia pseudoacaciaBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 30000.0 -0.62 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona reticulataBark-- -- *
Paeonia officinalisRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Punica granatumRoot-- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- -- *
Vitis viniferaSeed-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 8000.0 -0.83 *
Cocos nuciferaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Prunus persicaLeaf-- 8000.0 -1.25 *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- 120000.0 1.36 *
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- 18000.0 -0.74 Abstract (See species file)
Dodonaea viscosaBark-- 58000.0 -0.73 *
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- 59800.0 -0.62 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cuscuta europaeaRoot-- 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans nigraFruit-- 147000.0 0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Guaiacum sp.Wood-- -- *
Schinus molleBark-- 230000.0 0.78 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 44000.0 -0.83 *
Quercus rubraBark-- 160000.0 0.17 *
Adiantum capillus-venerisPlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 482000.0 1.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 90000.0 0.12 *
Terminalia arjunaBark-- 158000.0 0.15 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juniperus communisFruit-- 50000.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Psidium guajavaRoot-- -- *
Guarea rusbyiBark-- -- *
Ligustrum vulgareBark-- 70000.0 -0.62 *
Marsdenia reichenbachiiPlant-- -- *
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Hydnocarpus kurziiSeed-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Schinus terebinthifoliusBark-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- -- *
Scutellaria churchillianaPlant-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 6000.0 -1.39 *
Warburgia ugandensisBark-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- 170000.0 0.73 *
Tussilago farfaraRhizome-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Catharanthus roseusLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Actaea cimicifugaRhizome-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- 55600.0 -0.38 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum sanctumPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia tortilisBark-- -- *
Acacia tortilisLeaf-- -- *
Ailanthus altissimaLeaf-- 120000.0 0.12 *
Mercurialis annuaRoot-- 33500.0 -1.34 *
Liquidambar styracifluaPlant-- -- *
Viola tricolorPlant-- -- *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cynara cardunculusPlant-- -- *
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 36000.0 -0.91 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Bryonia albaRoot-- -- *
Alnus glutinosaBark-- 200000.0 0.52 *
Asclepias syriacaSprout Seedling-- -- *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot-- -- *
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- 169000.0 0.24 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rhododendron ferrugineumLeaf-- -- *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalisHs-- 170000.0 *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- 200000.0 1.09 *
Oenothera biennisHerb-- 110000.0 *
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 *
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- 100000.0 1.24 *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Filipendula ulmariaLeaf-- -- *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- 93100.0 -0.09 *
Tamarindus indicaBl-- 70000.0 *
Filipendula ulmariaRoot-- 86200.0 0.3 *
Tamarindus indicaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ceiba pentandraBark-- 108200.0 -0.29 *
Ajuga reptansPlant-- 150000.0 0.97 *
Myrtus communisPlant-- 140000.0 0.82 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus corneaPlant-- 250000.0 2.43 *
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Pachira aquaticaBark-- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Prunus laurocerasusLeaf-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Piper angustifoliumLeaf-- -- *
Cinchona officinalisBark-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanumPlant-- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia leucophloeaPlant-- -- *
Prunus serotinaBark-- -- *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- -- *
Hamelia patensBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- 40000.0 -0.64 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peucedanum ostruthiumRoot-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumLeaf-- 32000.0 -0.96 *
Swertia chirataPlant-- -- *
Cornus floridaBark-- 30000.0 -0.97 *
Mahonia aquifoliumPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ononis spinosaPlant-- 5000.0 -1.15 *
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Collinsonia canadensisPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aegle marmelosFruit-- 90000.0 -0.04 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aegle marmelosPetiole-- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mimosa pudicaRoot-- 100000.0 0.73 *
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia melanoxylonPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumLeaf-- 110000.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Holarrhena pubescensBark-- 11400.0 -1.13 *
Tabernanthe ibogaRoot-- -- *
Borago officinalisPlant-- 30000.0 -0.78 *
Juglans regiaFruit-- 122000.0 0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Actaea racemosaRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 280000.0 1.79 *
Armoracia rusticanaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Castanea sativaLeaf-- 90000.0 -0.25 *
Ammi majusSeed-- 4500.0 -0.94 *
Azadirachta indicaStem Bark-- 60000.0 -0.43 *
Frangula alnusBark-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- 35000.0 -0.71 *
Nepeta catariaLeaf-- -- *
Serenoa repensRoot-- 75800.0 -0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tridax procumbensPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminataSeed-- -- *
Serenoa repensStem-- 54800.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Verbena officinalisPlant-- -- *
Phyllanthus emblicaTwig-- -- *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 100000.0 0.05 *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- -- *
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 46000.0 -0.79 *
Gaultheria procumbensLeaf-- -- *
Origanum creticumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Jatropha gossypifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- 150000.0 0.08 *
Prunus spinosaFruit-- -- *
Veronica officinalisPlant-- -- *
Nigella sativaSeed-- -- *
Sterculia urensBark-- -- *
Sterculia urensGum-- 20000.0 *
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- -- *
Gleditsia triacanthosLeaf-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaStem Bark-- 5000.0 -0.95 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Pausinystalia johimbeBark-- -- *
Apocynum cannabinumPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- 170000.0 1.26 *
Mentha aquaticaLeaf-- 74000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrysPlant-- 50000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Gelsemium sempervirensRoot-- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamitaPlant-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus canadensisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit200.0 18000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus armeniacaFruit600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Terminalia chebulaFruit1090.0 355000.0 2.51 *
Rosa caninaFruit3740.0 20000.0 -0.72 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf4400.0 30000.0 -0.98 *
Prosopis julifloraBark6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf6960.0 70000.0 -0.49 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf8400.0 40000.0 -0.86 *
Rhizophora mangleBark10000.0 520000.0 3.31 *
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Ceratonia siliquaBark12000.0 500000.0 3.14 *
Terminalia belliricaBark14000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisLeaf16800.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf16900.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf18000.0 22000.0 -1.08 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit18800.0 60225.0 -0.33 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Lagochilus inebriansPlant20000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Salvia officinalisPlant20000.0 80000.0 -0.05 *
Quercus suberCork20000.0 65000.0 *
Punica granatumRoot Bark20000.0 280000.0 0.85 *
Castanea sativaSeed20000.0 28000.0 -0.64 *
Salix albaBark20160.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Juniperus virginianaBark21000.0 86000.0 -0.48 *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant21000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Stachys officinalisPlant25200.0 150000.0 0.97 *
Marrubium vulgareFlower26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Medicago sativaHay27000.0 28000.0 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant28000.0 40000.0 -0.64 *
Scutellaria galericulataPlant28600.0 35000.0 -0.71 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot30000.0 210000.0 1.66 *
Rumex crispusRoot30000.0 60000.0 -0.51 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonicaStem30000.0 130000.0 1.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Ulmus rubraBark30000.0 65000.0 -0.67 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blancoBark30000.0 40000.0 -0.88 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit31600.0 64500.0 -0.29 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Juglans nigraPericarp33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf33800.0 270000.0 1.95 *
Sclerocarya caffraBark35000.0 100000.0 -0.36 *
Plantago majorPlant40000.0 57000.0 -0.39 *
Aleurites moluccanaBark40000.0 60000.0 -0.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hippophae rhamnoidesShoot40000.0 50000.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Artemisia absinthiumLeaf40000.0 77000.0 -0.41 *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Castanea sativaBark40000.0 120000.0 -0.18 *
Satureja hortensisPlant40000.0 85000.0 0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunella vulgarisPlant45000.0 105800.0 0.32 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit50000.0 120000.0 0.25 *
Thymus serpyllumPlant50000.0 75000.0 -0.13 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf50000.0 80000.0 -0.37 *
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower50000.0 120000.0 0.53 *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant50000.0 80000.0 -0.05 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Prunus cerasusBark50000.0 70000.0 -0.62 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rhododendron ponticumLeaf50000.0 120000.0 0.12 *
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Juglans regiaBark53000.0 75100.0 -0.58 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf59700.0 133000.0 0.27 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf60000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Terminalia catappaFruit60000.0 200000.0 1.02 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Ligustrum vulgareLeaf60000.0 100000.0 -0.13 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiPlant60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Marrubium vulgarePlant65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus kesiyaBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Albizia lebbeckBark70000.0 110000.0 -0.27 Wealth of India.
Solanum nigrumPlant70000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Pinus insularisBark70000.0 100000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia arjunaFruit70000.0 120000.0 0.25 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Quercus albaBark78500.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Teucrium scorodoniaLeaf80000.0 90000.0 -0.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Symphytum officinalePlant80000.0 90000.0 0.09 *
Quercus roburBark80000.0 200000.0 0.52 *
Rumex acetosellaRoot80000.0 140000.0 1.98 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant80000.0 100000.0 0.24 *
Phyllanthus emblicaBark80000.0 166400.0 0.22 *
Maclura pomiferaWood90000.0 100000.0 1.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Psidium guajavaLeaf90000.0 100000.0 -0.13 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Juglans regiaLeaf90000.0 110000.0 -0.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anogeissus latifoliaBark100000.0 150000.0 0.08 *
Tsuga canadensisBark100000.0 150500.0 0.08 *
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf100000.0 200000.0 1.09 *
Punica granatumStem Bark100000.0 250000.0 1.38 *
Punica granatumPericarp104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Psidium guajavaBark110000.0 300000.0 1.39 *
Jatropha curcasResin, Exudate, Sap116000.0 187000.0 -0.75 *
Areca catechuSeed150000.0 250000.0 2.11 *
Acacia niloticaResin, Exudate, Sap170000.0 200000.0 -0.66 *
Fallopia japonicaLeaf170000.0 240000.0 1.58 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia belliricaFruit170000.0 214000.0 1.15 *
Byrsonima crassifoliaBark172500.0 282600.0 1.24 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Melia azedarachBark180000.0 260000.0 1.04 *
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant180000.0 350000.0 3.89 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Simarouba amaraBark200000.0 270000.0 1.13 *
Rhus coriariaLeaf210000.0 280000.0 2.07 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Anogeissus latifoliaLeaf322000.0 329000.0 2.67 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.