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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Lepidium sativumSeed9000.0 9545.0 3.97 *
Petasites japonicusPlant6500.0 7300.0 1.46 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Peucedanum decursivumPlant3700.0 5200.0 0.57 *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant3100.0 3400.0 -0.2 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Morus albaLeaf3000.0 5600.0 0.18 *
Boehmeria niveaPlant3000.0 3700.0 -0.07 *
Taraxacum officinalePlant2600.0 3300.0 -0.24 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Helianthus annuusSeed2574.0 4880.0 1.33 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb2300.0 10570.0 1.0 LAWSON in Koch, H. P. and Lawson, L. D., eds. 1996. Garlic- The Science and therapeutic application of Allium sativum L. and related species. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 329 pp.
Fallopia japonicaPlant2300.0 2600.0 -0.54 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Artemisia vulgarisPlant2300.0 2800.0 -0.45 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Vigna radiataSeed1880.0 2378.0 -0.09 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed1800.0 2018.0 -0.29 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot1800.0 10000.0 2.15 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Piper nigrumFruit1750.0 5760.0 3.02 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna mungoSeed1740.0 1953.0 -0.33 *
Polystichum polyblepharumPlant1700.0 2100.0 -0.75 *
Avena sativaSeed1500.0 3100.0 0.32 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Corylus avellanaSeed1500.0 2070.0 -0.26 *
Secale cerealeSeed1460.0 1640.0 -0.51 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensPlant1400.0 11175.0 3.11 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Triticum aestivumPlant1300.0 2900.0 -0.41 *
Brassica pekinensisShoot1216.0 1365.0 -0.31 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1200.0 11800.0 1.63 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1200.0 11800.0 1.63 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf1200.0 6665.0 0.43 *
Triticum aestivumSeed1200.0 3200.0 0.38 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit1000.0 1300.0 -0.08 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Avena sativaPlant800.0 4100.0 0.1 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Cichorium endiviaShoot740.0 912.0 -0.68 *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant630.0 6300.0 1.04 *
Asimina trilobaFruit620.0 3333.0 1.34 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed608.0 4200.0 0.94 *
Allium ampeloprasumLeaf600.0 700.0 -0.97 *
Vicia fabaFruit530.0 3630.0 1.54 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Brassica rapaRoot510.0 5100.0 0.7 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit510.0 590.0 -0.57 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed440.0 1370.0 -0.66 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit430.0 2515.0 0.77 *
Pisum sativumSeed410.0 2290.0 -0.14 *
Rosa caninaFruit400.0 1000.0 -0.29 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf385.0 8750.0 0.92 *
Petroselinum crispumPlant380.0 4700.0 0.36 *
Raphanus sativusRoot350.0 6140.0 1.01 *
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit350.0 6480.0 3.53 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot350.0 5000.0 0.67 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Carica papayaFruit300.0 900.0 -0.36 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit270.0 3250.0 1.28 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant270.0 5700.0 0.78 *
Pastinaca sativaRoot270.0 11050.0 2.46 *
Annona muricataFruit210.0 2700.0 0.89 *
Ribes nigrumFruit200.0 1385.0 -0.02 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Rubus chamaemorusFruit190.0 1185.0 -0.16 *
Capsicum annuumFruit190.0 2440.0 0.71 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit166.0 820.0 -0.41 *
Murraya spFruit150.0 450.0 -0.67 *
Genipa americanaFruit140.0 2000.0 0.41 *
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit140.0 1400.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cucumis sativusFruit140.0 5250.0 2.67 *
Cucumis meloFruit139.0 198.0 -0.85 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit130.0 1075.0 -0.24 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit130.0 1075.0 -0.24 *
Ribes rubrumFruit130.0 1782.0 0.26 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit130.0 800.0 -0.43 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Syzygium jambosFruit130.0 840.0 -0.4 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Ipomoea batatasRoot130.0 610.0 -0.62 *
Citrus reticulataFruit130.0 1000.0 -0.29 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Beta vulgarisRoot130.0 2000.0 -0.21 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Solanum melongenaFruit126.0 152.0 -0.88 *
Artocarpus altilisFruit120.0 530.0 -0.62 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot119.0 400.0 -0.69 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot118.0 530.0 -0.65 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit107.0 2330.0 0.64 *
Apium graveolensRoot100.0 1000.0 -0.51 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Dioscorea alataRoot98.0 990.0 -0.51 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit96.0 1113.0 -0.21 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot85.0 565.0 -0.64 *
Allium cepaBulb80.0 4075.0 -1.0 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot79.0 580.0 -0.63 *
Fragaria sppFruit77.0 1270.0 -0.1 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Mangifera indicaFruit70.0 615.0 -0.56 *
Ananas comosusFruit70.0 200.0 -0.85 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit65.0 500.0 -0.64 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Rheum rhabarbarumPt62.0 1240.0 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot56.0 864.0 -0.72 *
Manihot esculentaRoot54.0 250.0 -0.73 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit54.0 875.0 -0.38 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed54.0 137.0 -1.36 *
Daucus carotaRoot52.0 1635.0 -0.32 *
Citrus sinensisFruit46.0 1000.0 -0.29 *
Spondias dulcisFruit36.0 180.0 -0.86 *
Lactuca sativaShoot29.0 3800.0 1.71 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot26.0 195.0 -0.75 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber16.0 1900.0 *
Vitis viniferaFruit7.0 888.0 -0.37 *
Citrus paradisiFruit7.0 2090.0 0.47 *
Zea maysFruit6.0 1140.0 -0.19 *
Prunus domesticaFruit4.0 400.0 -0.71 *
Prunus persicaFruit3.0 700.0 -0.5 *
Pyrus communisFruit3.0 300.0 -0.78 *
Malus domesticaFruit1.65 23.0 -0.97 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- 1500.0 -1.0 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 880.0 -0.93 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 2300.0 -0.13 *
Carya ovataSeed-- 2180.0 -0.2 *
Panicum maximumLeaf-- 1800.0 -0.71 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Genipa americanaSeed-- 1300.0 -0.7 *
Juglans cinereaSeed-- 2870.0 0.19 *
Spondias tuberosaFruit-- 120.0 -0.9 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- 100.0 -0.91 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glycine maxSeed-- 4066.0 0.87 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- 1200.0 -0.13 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed-- 4800.0 1.28 *
Cinnamomum burmanniiBark-- 1000.0 -0.64 *
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- 1900.0 1.66 *
Pistacia veraSeed-- 2870.0 0.19 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot-- 250.0 -0.73 *
Pisum sativumPlant-- 2300.0 -0.66 *
Stellaria mediaPlant-- 3828.0 -0.01 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans nigraSeed-- 2652.0 0.07 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Quercus rubraSeed-- 1160.0 -0.78 *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- 7900.0 0.72 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- 200.0 -1.32 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Oryza sativaPlant-- 1000.0 -1.22 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 1600.0 -0.96 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaSeed-- 4000.0 0.83 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 3420.0 0.5 *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- 140.0 -0.89 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Moringa oleiferaFruit-- 1370.0 -0.03 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- 1370.0 -0.81 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf-- 240.0 -1.08 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumPlant-- 1670.0 -0.93 *
Tamarindus indicaLeaf-- 630.0 -0.99 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Arachis hypogaeaSeed-- 2100.0 -0.25 *
Punica granatumFruit-- 120.0 -0.9 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Carya illinoensisSeed-- 800.0 -0.98 *
Juglans regiaSeed-- 1040.0 -0.85 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Azadirachta indicaSeed-- 1921.0 -0.35 *
Lens culinarisSeed-- 1220.0 -0.74 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Spondias dulcisSeed-- 900.0 -0.92 *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiBark-- 900.0 -0.9 *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiRoot Bark-- 800.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.