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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acrocomia totaiSeed-- 12800.0 -1.12 *
Acrocomia totaiFruit-- 48500.0 -0.68 *
Aegle marmelosFruit-- 46000.0 -0.69 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Allium cepaBulb-- -- Malkki, Y., Nikkila, O. E., Aalto, M. 1978. The Composition and Aroma of Onions and Influencing Factors. J. Sci. Agr. Soc. Finland, 50: 103-.
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot51800.0 140000.0 0.35 *
Althaea officinalisRoot11880.0 110000.0 0.06 *
Angelica sinensisRoot24200.0 110000.0 0.06 *
Annona cherimolaFruit-- 119000.0 -0.39 *
Apium graveolensSeed14700.0 70000.0 0.38 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolensFruit14700.0 70000.0 -0.6 *
Arctium lappaRoot35250.0 150000.0 0.45 *
Avena sativaPlant30000.0 93000.0 -0.22 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Avena sativaSeed20000.0 50000.0 -0.14 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Balanites aegyptiacusFruit380000.0 400000.0 0.77 *
Bupleurum chinenseRoot6600.0 60000.0 -0.42 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- 48000.0 -0.63 *
Capsicum annuumFruit18060.0 70000.0 -0.6 *
Carica papayaFruit24300.0 180000.0 -0.14 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower12600.0 90000.0 -1.63 *
Carum carviSeed-- 30000.0 -0.67 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Carum carviFruit-- 30000.0 -0.76 *
Centella asiaticaLeaf9630.0 90000.0 0.36 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit300000.0 700000.0 2.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cichorium intybusRoot-- 585000.0 4.66 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot21000.0 100000.0 -0.04 *
Citrus paradisiFruit33000.0 99600.0 -0.47 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 17400.0 -0.81 *
Citrus sinensisFruit39600.0 119800.0 -0.39 *
Citrus reticulataFruit69400.0 113600.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cnicus benedictusPlant15960.0 120000.0 0.02 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 200000.0 -0.06 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Crataegus laevigataFruit33480.0 120000.0 -0.39 *
Curcuma longaPlant108500.0 400000.0 2.56 *
Cydonia oblongaFruit-- 96000.0 -0.49 *
Cyperus rotundusRoot132200.0 144000.0 0.39 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit50000.0 375000.0 0.66 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot5000.0 51455.0 -0.51 *
Dioscorea alataRoot5000.0 35980.0 -0.66 *
Durio zibethinusFruit120000.0 430000.0 0.89 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot18900.0 90000.0 -0.13 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusFlower-- -- *
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf19800.0 90000.0 0.36 *
Ficus caricaFruit68500.0 896800.0 2.82 Korean J. Food Sci. Techn. 13(2): 166. 1981.
Frangula purshianaBark13850.0 50000.0 -0.58 *
Fucus vesiculosusPlant2360.0 20000.0 -0.88 *
Garcinia mangostanaFruit164200.0 960000.0 3.08 *
Genipa americanaFruit43000.0 132000.0 -0.34 *
Gentiana luteaRoot22000.0 100000.0 -0.04 *
Glycine maxSeed-- 125000.0 1.82 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot12560.0 120000.0 0.16 *
Gossypium spSeed-- 72900.0 0.45 *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot11400.0 60000.0 -0.42 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower12100.0 110000.0 0.0 *
Humulus lupulusFlower22320.0 120000.0 0.82 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot21000.0 60000.0 -0.42 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot19390.0 70000.0 -0.33 *
Juglans nigraPericarp6000.0 50000.0 *
Juniperus communisFruit24800.0 80000.0 -0.55 *
Larrea tridentataPlant26320.0 80000.0 -0.34 *
Lawsonia inermisLeaf-- 110000.0 1.08 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycium barbarumFruit470000.0 560000.0 1.43 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit15000.0 45000.0 -0.7 *
Lycopodium clavatumPollen Or Spore-- 30000.0 Hutchings, A, Scott, AH, Lewis, G, and Cunningham, A. 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An inventory. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. 450 pp.
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 10700.0 -1.17 *
Mangifera indicaFruit112000.0 205000.0 -0.04 *
Manihot esculentaRoot3400.0 33730.0 -0.68 *
Maranta arundinaceaRoot21000.0 63000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Medicago sativaPlant16920.0 90000.0 -0.25 *
Melilotus albaSeed-- 27000.0 -0.74 *
Momordica charantiaFruit35000.0 45000.0 -0.7 *
Myrica ceriferaBark19620.0 90000.0 0.96 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit56000.0 560000.0 1.43 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber52200.0 296255.0 *
Panax ginsengRoot19080.0 90000.0 -0.13 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 161900.0 0.56 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Petroselinum crispumPlant7110.0 90000.0 -0.25 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit380000.0 850000.0 2.62 *
Physalis alkekingiFruit-- 20000.0 -0.8 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit-- 20000.0 -0.8 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit32400.0 57400.0 -0.65 *
Piper betelLeaf24000.0 56000.0 -0.86 *
Piper methysticumRoot-- 32000.0 -0.7 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Prunus cerasusFruit68000.0 104400.0 -0.45 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 56000.0 -0.46 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pteridium aquilinumRhizome67000.0 213000.0 *
Quercus albaBark6840.0 30000.0 -1.35 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit19800.0 102500.0 -0.46 *
Ribes rubrumFruit6000.0 83200.0 -0.54 *
Ribes nigrumFruit15800.0 106400.0 -0.45 *
Rosa caninaFruit28050.0 150000.0 -0.27 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf10140.0 60000.0 -0.72 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot24160.0 80000.0 -0.23 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit18000.0 120000.0 -0.39 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf26390.0 130000.0 1.8 *
Serenoa repensFruit13000.0 100000.0 -0.47 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sorbus aucubariaFruit31000.0 80000.0 -0.55 *
Symphytum officinaleLeaf9900.0 90000.0 0.36 *
Tamarindus indicaFruit200000.0 400000.0 0.77 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot14300.0 100000.0 -0.04 *
Terminalia belliricaLeaf38400.0 53500.0 -0.95 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia arjunaFruit-- 57500.0 -0.65 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Theobroma cacaoSeed20000.0 40000.0 -0.41 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Trifolium pratenseFlower21600.0 120000.0 0.82 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed44200.0 116700.0 1.6 Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.
Trigonella foenum-graecumFruit9300.0 49300.0 -0.68 Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.
Turnera diffusaLeaf8400.0 40000.0 -1.43 *
Ulmus rubraBark14760.0 90000.0 0.96 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit12000.0 150000.0 -0.27 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit14400.0 120000.0 -0.39 *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit71000.0 350000.0 0.56 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot2700.0 17870.0 -0.83 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot5600.0 80000.0 -0.23 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.