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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Pisum sativumSeed22500.0 280000.0 3.29 *
Asimina trilobaFruit60000.0 545000.0 3.12 *
Ficus caricaFruit2250.0 460000.0 2.51 *
Castanea sativaSeed-- 216000.0 2.37 *
Daucus carotaRoot60000.0 339000.0 2.18 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit-- 400000.0 2.09 *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- 70000.0 1.93 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- 350000.0 1.73 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Polypodium vulgareRhizome-- 155000.0 1.67 *
Beta vulgarisRoot-- 270000.0 1.48 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona squamosaFruit72900.0 272500.0 1.19 *
Panax ginsengRoot1300.0 226000.0 1.04 *
Lycoris radiataBulb-- 73200.0 1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zizyphus jujubaFruit122000.0 208000.0 0.73 *
Spondias dulcisFruit80500.0 200000.0 0.67 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit75000.0 175000.0 0.49 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed18000.0 79200.0 0.43 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Panax quinquefoliusRoot39000.0 158600.0 0.35 *
Glycine maxSeed27950.0 71700.0 0.32 *
Ananas comosusFruit59000.0 150000.0 0.32 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cichorium intybusRoot-- 140000.0 0.16 *
Paeonia officinalisRoot80000.0 140000.0 0.16 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mangifera indicaFruit66700.0 125800.0 0.15 *
Corylus avellanaSeed20000.0 50000.0 0.01 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus persicaFruit20000.0 100000.0 -0.04 *
Phytelephas aequatorialisSeed5600.0 45565.0 -0.05 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Piper betelLeaf6000.0 25000.0 -0.08 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit14800.0 87500.0 -0.13 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Phoenix dactyliferaSeed-- 38200.0 -0.15 Abstract (See species file)
Phragmites australisRhizome-- 51000.0 -0.16 *
Theobroma cacaoSeed18000.0 37000.0 -0.17 *
Pistacia veraSeed-- 32600.0 -0.23 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot24000.0 91700.0 -0.33 *
Mammea americanaFruit-- 55000.0 -0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus armeniacaFruit14000.0 54000.0 -0.36 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed-- 23000.0 -0.37 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Prunus domesticaFruit7000.0 48000.0 -0.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 47000.0 -0.41 *
Nelumbo nuciferaFruit41000.0 45556.0 -0.42 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot28000.0 81000.0 -0.44 *
Vigna radiataSeed-- 18000.0 -0.44 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- 17000.0 -0.44 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vigna mungoSeed-- 16000.0 -0.47 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 15000.0 -0.48 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 15000.0 -0.48 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Teucrium montanumLeaf-- 16000.0 -0.49 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Malus domesticaFruit24000.0 36200.0 -0.49 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed-- 14000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed1200.0 12700.0 -0.52 *
Rosa caninaFruit6000.0 32100.0 -0.52 *
Spondias pinnataFruit-- 29000.0 -0.54 *
Echinacea angustifoliaRoot-- 69200.0 -0.56 Jim Duke's personal files.
Physalis ixocarpaFruit3140.0 25060.0 -0.57 *
Triticum aestivumSeed-- 8400.0 -0.58 *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 21400.0 -0.6 *
Zea maysFruit9000.0 19000.0 -0.61 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Musa x paradisiacaFruit500.0 18400.0 -0.62 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome4100.0 25309.0 -0.62 *
Viburnum opulusFruit-- 16600.0 -0.63 *
Oryza sativaSeed3000.0 4800.0 -0.63 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed-- 3600.0 -0.65 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit2600.0 12970.0 -0.65 *
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- 10000.0 -0.68 *
Sambucus nigraFruit700.0 9530.0 -0.68 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 388.0 -0.69 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 7100.0 -0.7 *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- 6200.0 -0.7 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit-- 5300.0 -0.71 *
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit1000.0 5000.0 -0.71 Abstract (See species file)
Trigonella foenum-graecumFruit400.0 2500.0 -0.73 Singh, J., Gupta, K., and Arora, S.K. 1993. Changes in the anti-nutritional factors of developing seeds and pod walls of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 46: 77-84, 1994.
Ribes rubrumFruit-- 1500.0 -0.74 *
Arnica montanaRhizome-- 10000.0 -0.89 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot-- 36000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Echinacea purpureaRoot-- 34000.0 -0.92 Jim Duke's personal files.
Panax ginsengLeaf-- 6400.0 -0.92 *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- 27300.0 -0.98 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb-- 70000.0 -1.0 *
Withania somniferaRoot-- 1000.0 -1.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- 420.0 *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus dulcisSeed-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Eriobotrya japonicaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Harpagophytum procumbensTuber-- -- *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit-- -- *
Hydrastis canadensisPlant-- -- *
Santalum albumFruit-- -- *
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoPlant-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tulipa gesnerianaBulb-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus mitisFruit Juice-- 11000.0 *
Crataegus laevigataBark-- -- *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- -- *
Tilia sp.Wood-- -- *
Apium graveolensShoot-- -- *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- -- Osman, S. A. 1980. Chemical and Biological Studies of Onion and Garlic in an Attempt to Isolate a Hypoclycaemic Extract. Abstr. 4th Asian Symp. Med. Plants Spices Bangkok, Thailand, September 15-19: 117.
Ballota nigraRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zea maysLeaf-- -- *
Areca catechuSeed-- -- *
Sinapis albaSeed-- -- *
Acacia niloticaSeed-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Phytelephas aequatorialisMesocarp-- 1.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Aesculus hippocastanumBranches-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Passiflora incarnataPlant-- -- *
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Plantago ovataPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia lactifloraBud-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vetiveria zizanioidesRoot-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Carica papayaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rubus idaeusFruit-- -- *
Corylus avellanaPlant-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaBark-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaFruit-- -- *
Lycopodium clavatumPlant-- -- *
Ophiopogon japonicusTuber-- -- *
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Avena sativaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ginkgo bilobaWood10000.0 20000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sesamum indicumSeed-- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- *
Althaea officinalisPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Urtica dioicaRoot-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Veratrum albumRhizome-- -- *
Viburnum opulusRoot Bark-- -- *
Plantago ovataSeed-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumBark-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Dianthus caryophyllusSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinalePlant-- -- *
Gentiana luteaRoot-- -- *
Cnidium officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Piper methysticumRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Stevia rebaudianaPlant-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Cocos nuciferaJuice-- 4300.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Prunella vulgarisNa-- 301200.0 *
Allium cepaLeaf-- -- Osman, S. A. 1980. Chemical and Biological Studies of Onion and Garlic in an Attempt to Isolate a Hypoclycaemic Extract. Abstr. 4th Asian Symp. Med. Plants Spices Bangkok, Thailand, September 15-19: 117.
Verbascum thapsusSeed Oil-- -- *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Maclura pomiferaShoot-- -- *
Psidium guajavaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- 2400.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Carica papayaBark-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Psidium guajavaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Carica papayaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Anamirta cocculusFruit-- -- *
Glycine maxStem-- -- *
Mahonia repensRoot-- -- Suess, T. R. and Stermitz, F. R. 1981. The Constituents of Castilleja rhexifolia, Mahonia repens and Oncidium cebolleta. Dissertation Abstract Int B, 42: 1025-1026.
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Mahonia repensStem-- -- Suess, T. R. and Stermitz, F. R. 1981. The Constituents of Castilleja rhexifolia, Mahonia repens and Oncidium cebolleta. Dissertation Abstract Int B, 42: 1025-1026.
Rosa sppFruit-- -- *
Skimmia arborescensLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia belliricaSeed-- -- Singh, P., Sharma, S. 1997. Triterpenoid Constituents of the Seeds of Diospyros melanoxylon, Tecomella undulata and Terminalia bellirica. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 74 6: 504-505.
Eleocharis dulcisTuber63500.0 317500.0 *
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- *
Saccharum officinarumPlant-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Daphne mezereumPlant-- -- *
Alnus glutinosaLeaf-- -- *
Kalmia latifoliaLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lawsonia inermisLeaf-- -- *
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit-- -- *
Citrus mitisJf-- 11000.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- Osman, S. A. 1980. Chemical and Biological Studies of Onion and Garlic in an Attempt to Isolate a Hypoclycaemic Extract. Abstr. 4th Asian Symp. Med. Plants Spices Bangkok, Thailand, September 15-19: 117.
Asparagus officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit-- -- *
Jatropha curcasSeed-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Punica granatumFruit-- -- *
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Alocasia macrorrhizaPlant-- -- *
Panax ginsengRhizome-- -- *
Panax ginsengStem-- 3500.0 *
Passiflora incarnataShoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Angelica archangelicaRoot-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Cocos nuciferaResin, Exudate, Sap-- 134000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.