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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Theobroma cacaoHb-- 60000.0 *
Astragalus gummiferGum10000.0 30000.0 *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tulipa gesnerianaBulb-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pistacia lentiscusSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Cypripedium pubescensRoot-- -- *
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Myristica fragransAril-- 317000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phytelephas aequatorialisMesocarp16900.0 129020.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Uncaria catechuPlant-- -- *
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style119900.0 130300.0 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Lycoris radiataBulb200000.0 551000.0 *
Melia azedarachFruit-- -- *
Andira inermisBark-- -- *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Gloriosa superbaBulb-- -- *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower14000.0 100000.0 *
Turnera diffusaBranches-- 60000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- -- *
Salix albaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sanguinaria canadensisPlant-- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cimicifuga racemosaPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Glycine maxTissue Culture-- -- *
Caladium bicolorTuber-- -- *
Drynaria fortuneiRhizome-- -- *
Hydnocarpus wightianaFruit-- -- *
Oenothera biennisSeed-- -- *
Myrica ceriferaPlant-- -- *
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycyrrhiza glabraShoot-- 15000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Cinchona sppBark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Ipomoea purgaTuber-- -- *
Jatropha curcasSeed-- -- *
Withania somniferaRoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Actaea racemosaPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Panax ginsengRhizome-- -- *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- -- *
Sassafras albidumPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Castanospermum australeSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viscum albumStem-- -- *
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lolium temulentumSeed-- -- *
Polypodium vulgareRhizome-- 63000.0 -2.36 *
Stellaria mediaRoot-- 15300.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Punica granatumSeed-- -- -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phytelephas aequatorialisSeed-- 1.0 -1.26 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 2000.0 -1.25 *
Arisaema triphyllumTuber100000.0 170000.0 -1.25 *
Glycine maxSeed-- 10000.0 -1.22 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Daucus carotaRoot14800.0 25200.0 -1.22 *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome200000.0 250000.0 -1.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melilotus albaSeed-- 30000.0 -1.13 *
Prunus persicaSeed-- 36000.0 -1.11 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed2000.0 39000.0 -1.1 Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.
Brunfelsia uniflorusBark-- 13000.0 -1.09 *
Colchicum autumnaleTuber-- 210000.0 -1.08 *
Carum carviSeed-- 45000.0 -1.07 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 50000.0 -1.05 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 60000.0 -1.01 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Musa x paradisiacaStem-- 50000.0 -1.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Medicago sativaPlant11280.0 60000.0 -0.99 *
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot29600.0 80000.0 -0.99 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot16800.0 80000.0 -0.99 *
Cyperus rotundusRoot-- 92000.0 -0.94 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf-- 700.0 -0.94 *
Abelmoschus esculentusSeed-- 89200.0 -0.89 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Theobroma cacaoSeed50000.0 90000.0 -0.89 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 262600.0 -0.86 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Cnicus benedictusPlant10640.0 80000.0 -0.84 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.82 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Echinacea purpureaRoot30120.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot19200.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot36240.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Panax ginsengRoot25440.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Arctium lappaRoot28200.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaSeed-- 111000.0 -0.81 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot15400.0 140000.0 -0.74 *
Psidium guajavaSeed130000.0 132000.0 -0.72 *
Pueraria pseudohirsutaRoot100000.0 150000.0 -0.69 *
Calathea allouiaRoot130000.0 150000.0 -0.69 *
Angelica sinensisRoot33000.0 150000.0 -0.69 *
Bletilla striataTuber-- 304800.0 -0.68 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Gentiana luteaRoot35200.0 160000.0 -0.65 *
Rheum officinaleRoot150000.0 160000.0 -0.65 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed19500.0 150000.0 -0.65 *
Abelmoschus moschatusSeed133500.0 150000.0 -0.65 Wealth of India.
Costus speciosusRhizome-- 333333.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hydrastis canadensisRoot27700.0 180000.0 -0.57 *
Stellaria mediaPlant9960.0 120000.0 -0.55 *
Aegle marmelosSeed-- 175000.0 -0.55 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia officinalisRoot140000.0 200000.0 -0.48 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot7850.0 200000.0 -0.48 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot48000.0 200000.0 -0.48 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot118000.0 201000.0 -0.48 *
Viburnum prunifoliumBark-- 55000.0 -0.46 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ananas comosusFruit-- 19.0 -0.46 *
Sesamum indicumSeed150000.0 200000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit1800.0 8910.0 -0.44 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit120.0 10000.0 -0.44 *
Rauvolfia serpentinaSeed126000.0 203000.0 -0.43 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.43 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit7000.0 17500.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf10000.0 20000.0 -0.42 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Bactris gasipaesSeed-- 208000.0 -0.41 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Armoracia rusticanaRoot39600.0 220000.0 -0.4 *
Carum carviFruit-- 45000.0 -0.39 *
Myrica ceriferaBark13080.0 60000.0 -0.38 *
Teucrium montanumLeaf-- 22000.0 -0.37 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Manilkara zapotaFruit29800.0 64000.0 -0.36 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 100000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eleocharis dulcisTuber70000.0 400000.0 -0.28 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Smilax officinalisRoot52500.0 250000.0 -0.27 *
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot100000.0 250000.0 -0.27 *
Smilax sppRoot52500.0 250000.0 -0.27 *
Aconitum napellusRoot-- 250000.0 -0.27 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cycas revolutaSeed68000.0 243700.0 -0.27 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit10000.0 140000.0 -0.24 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot245000.0 262000.0 -0.22 *
Acorus calamusRhizome250000.0 400000.0 -0.22 Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Curcuma xanthorrhizaRhizome300000.0 400000.0 -0.22 *
Prosopis julifloraFruit-- 163600.0 -0.21 *
Rosa caninaFruit33660.0 180000.0 -0.18 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit41850.0 180000.0 -0.18 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit150000.0 180000.0 -0.18 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed-- 266000.0 -0.18 *
Ananas comosusLeaf-- 30000.0 -0.15 Wealth of India.
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit-- 206000.0 -0.14 Abstract (See species file)
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 31000.0 -0.13 *
Lens culinarisSeed-- 285000.0 -0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Myristica fragransSeed-- 300000.0 -0.04 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Berberis vulgarisBark-- 90000.0 0.07 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 350000.0 0.08 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pteridium aquilinumRhizome-- 450000.0 0.1 *
Cola acuminataSeed-- 340000.0 0.12 *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot300000.0 350000.0 0.14 *
Simaba cedronSeed-- 360000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Althaea officinalisRoot39960.0 370000.0 0.23 *
Pueraria montanaRoot130000.0 400000.0 0.35 *
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaRoot300000.0 400000.0 0.35 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber97200.0 551645.0 0.36 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed390000.0 400000.0 0.36 *
Aframomum meleguetaSeed220000.0 400000.0 0.36 Wealth of India.
Elettaria cardamomumSeed200000.0 400000.0 0.36 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vigna unguiculataSeed390000.0 400000.0 0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Turnera diffusaLeaf10500.0 50000.0 0.38 *
Piper nigrumFruit280000.0 565000.0 0.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Crotalaria junceaSeed-- 411000.0 0.41 *
Curcuma zedoariaRhizome-- 500000.0 0.42 *
Iris x germanicaRhizome200000.0 500000.0 0.42 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome123000.0 500000.0 0.42 *
Piper methysticumRoot-- 430000.0 0.48 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Pisum sativumSeed329000.0 434000.0 0.5 *
Curcuma longaRhizome300000.0 550000.0 0.73 *
Physostigma venenosumSeed480000.0 500000.0 0.77 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome92500.0 570988.0 0.87 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant80000.0 320000.0 0.9 *
Pinellia ternataTuber-- 690000.0 0.95 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaRoot259000.0 550000.0 0.98 *
Ananas comosusStem100000.0 150000.0 1.0 Wealth of India.
Castanea sativaSeed450000.0 580000.0 1.09 *
Avena sativaSeed500000.0 600000.0 1.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aesculus hippocastanumSeed300000.0 600000.0 1.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zingiber officinaleRoot35000.0 600000.0 1.19 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- 620000.0 1.25 *
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- 800000.0 1.41 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber150000.0 800000.0 1.41 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot135000.0 655340.0 1.42 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 670000.0 1.46 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant250000.0 400000.0 1.48 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ginkgo bilobaSeed407400.0 680000.0 1.5 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 693000.0 1.58 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 698400.0 1.6 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Maranta arundinaceaRhizome250000.0 695000.0 1.66 *
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 728000.0 1.69 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot215000.0 723900.0 1.71 *
Oryza sativaSeed722000.0 749000.0 1.78 *
Dioscorea alataRoot159000.0 743000.0 1.79 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot67200.0 747747.0 1.81 *
Ulmus rubraBark13120.0 210000.0 1.86 *
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed500000.0 790000.0 1.94 *
Triticum aestivumSeed542000.0 800000.0 1.98 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot257000.0 805640.0 2.05 *
Manihot esculentaRoot280000.0 828400.0 2.14 *
Terminalia belliricaLeaf99800.0 127000.0 2.44 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Durio zibethinusFruit80000.0 2857000.0 3.91 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.