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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Oryza sativaSeed722000.0 749000.0 1.78 *
Triticum aestivumSeed542000.0 800000.0 1.98 *
Avena sativaSeed500000.0 600000.0 1.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed500000.0 790000.0 1.94 *
Physostigma venenosumSeed480000.0 500000.0 0.77 *
Castanea sativaSeed450000.0 580000.0 1.09 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed407400.0 680000.0 1.5 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed390000.0 400000.0 0.36 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed390000.0 400000.0 0.36 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pisum sativumSeed329000.0 434000.0 0.5 *
Curcuma longaRhizome300000.0 550000.0 0.73 *
Jateorhiza palmataRoot300000.0 350000.0 0.14 *
Curcuma xanthorrhizaRhizome300000.0 400000.0 -0.22 *
Aesculus hippocastanumSeed300000.0 600000.0 1.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaRoot300000.0 400000.0 0.35 *
Manihot esculentaRoot280000.0 828400.0 2.14 *
Piper nigrumFruit280000.0 565000.0 0.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cucurbita foetidissimaRoot259000.0 550000.0 0.98 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot257000.0 805640.0 2.05 *
Acorus calamusRhizome250000.0 400000.0 -0.22 Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Maranta arundinaceaRhizome250000.0 695000.0 1.66 *
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant250000.0 400000.0 1.48 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Colocasia esculentaRoot245000.0 262000.0 -0.22 *
Aframomum meleguetaSeed220000.0 400000.0 0.36 Wealth of India.
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot215000.0 723900.0 1.71 *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome200000.0 250000.0 -1.17 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Iris x germanicaRhizome200000.0 500000.0 0.42 *
Lycoris radiataBulb200000.0 551000.0 *
Elettaria cardamomumSeed200000.0 400000.0 0.36 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Dioscorea alataRoot159000.0 743000.0 1.79 *
Sesamum indicumSeed150000.0 200000.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rheum officinaleRoot150000.0 160000.0 -0.65 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber150000.0 800000.0 1.41 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit150000.0 180000.0 -0.18 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Paeonia officinalisRoot140000.0 200000.0 -0.48 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot135000.0 655340.0 1.42 *
Abelmoschus moschatusSeed133500.0 150000.0 -0.65 Wealth of India.
Pueraria montanaRoot130000.0 400000.0 0.35 *
Calathea allouiaRoot130000.0 150000.0 -0.69 *
Psidium guajavaSeed130000.0 132000.0 -0.72 *
Rauvolfia serpentinaSeed126000.0 203000.0 -0.43 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome123000.0 500000.0 0.42 *
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style119900.0 130300.0 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Ipomoea batatasRoot118000.0 201000.0 -0.48 *
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot100000.0 250000.0 -0.27 *
Pueraria pseudohirsutaRoot100000.0 150000.0 -0.69 *
Arisaema triphyllumTuber100000.0 170000.0 -1.25 *
Ananas comosusStem100000.0 150000.0 1.0 Wealth of India.
Terminalia belliricaLeaf99800.0 127000.0 2.44 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber97200.0 551645.0 0.36 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome92500.0 570988.0 0.87 *
Durio zibethinusFruit80000.0 2857000.0 3.91 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Panax quinquefoliusPlant80000.0 320000.0 0.9 *
Eleocharis dulcisTuber70000.0 400000.0 -0.28 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cycas revolutaSeed68000.0 243700.0 -0.27 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot67200.0 747747.0 1.81 *
Smilax officinalisRoot52500.0 250000.0 -0.27 *
Smilax sppRoot52500.0 250000.0 -0.27 *
Theobroma cacaoSeed50000.0 90000.0 -0.89 *
Paullinia cupanaSeed50000.0 60000.0 -1.01 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Dioscorea villosaRoot48000.0 200000.0 -0.48 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit41850.0 180000.0 -0.18 *
Althaea officinalisRoot39960.0 370000.0 0.23 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot39600.0 220000.0 -0.4 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot36240.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Gentiana luteaRoot35200.0 160000.0 -0.65 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot35000.0 600000.0 1.19 *
Rosa caninaFruit33660.0 180000.0 -0.18 *
Angelica sinensisRoot33000.0 150000.0 -0.69 *
Echinacea purpureaRoot30120.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit29800.0 64000.0 -0.36 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot29600.0 80000.0 -0.99 *
Arctium lappaRoot28200.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot27700.0 180000.0 -0.57 *
Panax ginsengRoot25440.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed19500.0 150000.0 -0.65 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot19200.0 120000.0 -0.82 *
Phytelephas aequatorialisMesocarp16900.0 129020.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot16800.0 80000.0 -0.99 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot15400.0 140000.0 -0.74 *
Daucus carotaRoot14800.0 25200.0 -1.22 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower14000.0 100000.0 *
Ulmus rubraBark13120.0 210000.0 1.86 *
Myrica ceriferaBark13080.0 60000.0 -0.38 *
Medicago sativaPlant11280.0 60000.0 -0.99 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant10640.0 80000.0 -0.84 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf10500.0 50000.0 0.38 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit10000.0 140000.0 -0.24 *
Astragalus gummiferGum10000.0 30000.0 *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf10000.0 20000.0 -0.42 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Piper betelLeaf10000.0 31000.0 -0.13 *
Stellaria mediaPlant9960.0 120000.0 -0.55 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot7850.0 200000.0 -0.48 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit7000.0 17500.0 -0.43 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Linum usitatissimumSeed2000.0 39000.0 -1.1 Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit1800.0 8910.0 -0.44 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit120.0 10000.0 -0.44 *
Colchicum autumnaleTuber-- 210000.0 -1.08 *
Theobroma cacaoHb-- 60000.0 *
Curcuma zedoariaRhizome-- 500000.0 0.42 *
Costus speciosusRhizome-- 333333.0 -0.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Bactris gasipaesSeed-- 208000.0 -0.41 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Carum carviSeed-- 45000.0 -1.07 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.82 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mangifera indicaSeed-- 728000.0 1.69 *
Tulipa gesnerianaBulb-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pistacia lentiscusSeed-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ananas comosusFruit-- 19.0 -0.46 *
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Cypripedium pubescensRoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed-- 10000.0 -1.22 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Zea maysSeed-- -- *
Myristica fragransAril-- 317000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Myristica fragransSeed-- 300000.0 -0.04 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Phytelephas aequatorialisSeed-- 1.0 -1.26 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Uncaria catechuPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisBark-- 90000.0 0.07 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 670000.0 1.46 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Abelmoschus esculentusSeed-- 89200.0 -0.89 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Crotalaria junceaSeed-- 411000.0 0.41 *
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed-- 266000.0 -0.18 *
Melia azedarachFruit-- -- *
Andira inermisBark-- -- *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark-- -- *
Gloriosa superbaBulb-- -- *
Bletilla striataTuber-- 304800.0 -0.68 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit-- 206000.0 -0.14 Abstract (See species file)
Turnera diffusaBranches-- 60000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Carum carviFruit-- 45000.0 -0.39 *
Polypodium vulgareRhizome-- 63000.0 -2.36 *
Prosopis julifloraFruit-- 163600.0 -0.21 *
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- 350000.0 0.08 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 698400.0 1.6 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Prunus persicaSeed-- 36000.0 -1.11 *
Simaba cedronSeed-- 360000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ananas comosusLeaf-- 30000.0 -0.15 Wealth of India.
Piper methysticumRoot-- 430000.0 0.48 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Melilotus albaSeed-- 30000.0 -1.13 *
Atropa bella-donnaRoot-- -- *
Salix albaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Stellaria mediaRoot-- 15300.0 -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- 620000.0 1.25 *
Sanguinaria canadensisPlant-- -- *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 2000.0 -1.25 *
Brunfelsia uniflorusBark-- 13000.0 -1.09 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaSeed-- 111000.0 -0.81 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 100000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinellia ternataTuber-- 690000.0 0.95 *
Cimicifuga racemosaPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Glycine maxTissue Culture-- -- *
Dioscorea bulbiferaTuber-- 800000.0 1.41 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 693000.0 1.58 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Colocasia esculentaLeaf-- 700.0 -0.94 *
Caladium bicolorTuber-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumBark-- 55000.0 -0.46 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Drynaria fortuneiRhizome-- -- *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 262600.0 -0.86 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 15000.0 -0.43 *
Hydnocarpus wightianaFruit-- -- *
Oenothera biennisSeed-- -- *
Myrica ceriferaPlant-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumRhizome-- 450000.0 0.1 *
Aconitum napellusRoot-- 250000.0 -0.27 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanumLeaf-- 22000.0 -0.37 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Krameria triandraRoot-- -- *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycyrrhiza glabraShoot-- 15000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Aegle marmelosSeed-- 175000.0 -0.55 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinchona sppBark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Punica granatumSeed-- -- -1.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea purgaTuber-- -- *
Jatropha curcasSeed-- -- *
Withania somniferaRoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Actaea racemosaPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Musa x paradisiacaStem-- 50000.0 -1.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminataSeed-- 340000.0 0.12 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lens culinarisSeed-- 285000.0 -0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Panax ginsengRhizome-- -- *
Cyperus rotundusRoot-- 92000.0 -0.94 *
Quillaja saponariaBark-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 50000.0 -1.05 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sassafras albidumPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Castanospermum australeSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viscum albumStem-- -- *
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lolium temulentumSeed-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.