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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit440.0 4510.0 0.31 *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf3280.0 17600.0 1.55 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Aesculus hippocastanumLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Allium cepaBulb350.0 3815.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1260.0 15830.0 1.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb5.0 4560.0 1.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 23540.0 2.9 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1110.0 13353.0 0.59 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed8490.0 8637.0 -0.37 *
Ananas comosusFruit250.0 1852.0 -0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensShoot-- -- *
Apium graveolensPt200.0 4105.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed12710.0 15362.0 0.92 *
Arctium lappaRoot250.0 1250.0 -1.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisSeed4960.0 11340.0 0.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit354.0 3666.0 0.01 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1160.0 14968.0 -1.0 *
Avena sativaSeed-- 4000.0 -1.26 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit430.0 4735.0 0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bacopa monnieriPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Basella albaLeaf570.0 8260.0 -0.57 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed7460.0 7718.0 -0.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot540.0 4259.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Borago officinalisSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica rapaRoot290.0 3565.0 0.11 *
Brassica rapaLeaf480.0 10258.0 -0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf710.0 9493.0 -0.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf480.0 10258.0 -0.11 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1390.0 8945.0 -0.41 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1000.0 10740.0 -0.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower1040.0 13440.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1000.0 10740.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf500.0 8195.0 -0.58 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot350.0 3385.0 0.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed9780.0 11500.0 0.18 *
Calathea allouiaRoot3085.0 3390.0 0.02 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit800.0 6528.0 1.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit340.0 4638.0 0.35 *
Carica papayaFruit150.0 1343.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed9460.0 10500.0 -0.01 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea sativaSeed972.0 2139.0 -1.62 *
Castanea dentataSeed2077.0 3697.0 -1.32 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed1820.0 3255.0 -1.4 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 23500.0 2.48 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf2000.0 12740.0 0.45 *
Cicer arietinumSeed9730.0 11000.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf490.0 7890.0 -0.65 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 13700.0 0.6 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 1885.0 -0.62 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus reticulataFruit120.0 1773.0 -0.66 *
Citrus paradisiFruit150.0 3100.0 -0.19 *
Citrus sinensisFruit40.0 2410.0 -0.44 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf2045.0 10230.0 -0.12 *
Coccinia grandisFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nuciferaSeed1720.0 3245.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculentaRoot920.0 3135.0 -0.13 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf1820.0 14815.0 0.92 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaShoot-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit160.0 4051.0 0.14 *
Cucurbita sppFruit480.0 7595.0 1.4 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed11480.0 19825.0 1.77 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed12585.0 20180.0 1.84 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit440.0 6100.0 0.87 *
Daucus carotaRoot350.0 2865.0 -0.28 *
Daucus carotaPlant-- -- *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot710.0 3825.0 0.26 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 7110.0 -0.66 *
Ficus caricaFruit370.0 1771.0 -0.66 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit9000.0 9873.0 2.2 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed9000.0 9873.0 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit230.0 2728.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed2900.0 7935.0 -0.51 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxSeed21150.0 23125.0 2.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxPlant-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- 450.0 -1.64 *
Helianthus annuusSeed10750.0 11400.0 0.16 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 2954.0 -0.96 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Hordeum vulgareSeed-- 5000.0 -1.07 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea batatasRoot850.0 3400.0 0.02 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1220.0 16200.0 1.24 *
Juglans cinereaSeed16400.0 16967.0 1.23 *
Juglans regiaSeed7820.0 8115.0 -0.47 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigraSeed12400.0 12965.0 0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed13150.0 14510.0 0.75 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf390.0 6500.0 -0.96 *
Lens culinarisSeed12930.0 14560.0 0.76 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling4450.0 14835.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 5040.0 0.94 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.248 -2.03 *
Lupinus albusSeed18690.0 20870.0 1.97 *
Lycium barbarumFruit-- 1400.0 -0.79 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit57.0 3967.0 0.11 *
Macadamia sppSeed3510.0 3610.0 -1.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit80.0 497.0 -1.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mangifera indicaFruit220.0 3150.0 -0.17 *
Manihot esculentaRoot760.0 2415.0 -0.53 *
Melia azedarachSeed-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf1460.0 6840.0 -0.89 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicataLeaf1280.0 8860.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 39.9 -2.02 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot4140.0 19400.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed7650.0 16220.0 1.08 *
Murraya spFruit410.0 1181.0 -0.87 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit410.0 1826.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Nasturtium officinaleHerb600.0 12000.0 1.0 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed2520.0 7636.0 -0.56 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome600.0 2870.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed4210.0 5385.0 -0.99 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 5610.0 -1.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed8300.0 8858.0 -0.33 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 7665.0 -0.56 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 3830.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaPlant-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber470.0 4330.0 -0.51 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant289.0 1240.0 -1.34 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Papaver bracteatumSeed7400.0 8850.0 -0.33 *
Papaver somniferumSeed9870.0 10588.0 0.0 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 2667.0 -0.39 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit810.0 3148.0 -0.17 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed11750.0 13205.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit990.0 10175.0 2.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling2240.0 24086.0 1.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed4270.0 15900.0 1.02 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit60.0 1960.0 -0.59 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit183.0 905.0 -0.97 *
Pinellia ternataTuber-- -- *
Pinus edulisSeed4910.0 5220.0 -1.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed10190.0 15300.0 0.91 *
Pistacia veraSeed13510.0 14054.0 0.67 *
Pisum sativumFruit1250.0 12364.0 3.08 *
Pisum sativumSeed1810.0 8562.0 -0.39 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb450.0 8440.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit200.0 1351.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit320.0 2592.0 -0.37 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Prunus dulcisSeed9010.0 9424.0 -0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit830.0 6080.0 0.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit170.0 880.0 -0.98 *
Psidium guajavaFruit240.0 1728.0 -0.68 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed12350.0 13474.0 0.56 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf1490.0 6436.0 -0.98 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber4640.0 10892.0 1.67 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1857.0 -0.85 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit140.0 865.0 -0.98 *
Raphanus sativusRoot210.0 4070.0 0.4 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot1000.0 9000.0 3.17 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 60.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf1290.0 4000.0 -1.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Santalum albumFruit-- -- *
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed6810.0 7645.0 -0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit510.0 7285.0 1.29 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 7590.0 -0.57 *
Sesamum indicumSeed6150.0 13751.0 0.61 *
Sinapis albaSeed10810.0 11567.0 0.19 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber90.0 5250.0 -0.2 *
Solanum melongenaFruit410.0 5576.0 0.68 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1040.0 12351.0 1.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 8800.0 -0.34 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed12150.0 13365.0 0.53 *
Triticum aestivumSeed1000.0 7567.0 -0.58 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit200.0 1300.0 -0.83 *
Valeriana officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant630.0 8750.0 0.28 *
Vicia fabaSeed2460.0 12950.0 0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 12030.0 0.28 *
Vigna angularisSeed9760.0 11275.0 0.13 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed-- 12030.0 0.28 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling330.0 3466.0 -1.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed11760.0 12930.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit320.0 1646.0 -0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed1530.0 6365.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleTuber-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome450.0 2596.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinaleShoot-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRoot450.0 2596.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.