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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Acacia decurrensPlant-- -- *
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Adiantum capillus-venerisLeaf-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aesculus hippocastanumPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- -- *
Agathosma betulinaEssential Oil-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Agrimonia eupatoriaInflorescence-- 1700.0 *
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Alisma plantago-aquaticaLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb-- 14000.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Amaranthus sp.Plant-- -- *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Ammi visnagaFlower-- -- *
Ammi visnagaLeaf-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensLeaf-- 1400.0 -0.92 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Apium graveolensPlant-- 170.0 -0.68 *
Apium graveolensShoot-- 170.0 -0.56 *
Arachis hypogaeaPlant-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Artemisia absinthiumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Artemisia dracunculusShoot100.0 560.0 -0.53 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Asparagus officinalisRoot-- -- *
Azadirachta indicaLeaf-- -- *
Barosma betulinaEssential Oil-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaShoot-- 20.0 -0.57 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaFlower-- -- *
Calendula officinalisFlower-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf1200.0 1580.0 -0.91 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capparis spinosaShoot-- -- *
Capparis spinosaFlower-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- 487.0 -0.6 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Capsicum annuumFruit-- 3874.0 -0.21 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusLeaf-- 14000.0 -0.14 *
Cichorium intybusSeed-- 6400.0 0.08 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed15000.0 16500.0 1.61 *
Citrus limonFruit1.0 2.0 -0.65 *
Citrus sinensisLeaf-- 9000.0 -0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensisPericarp-- 6100.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumShoot-- -- *
Cornus masLeaf-- -- Delaveau, P., Paris, R. R. 1961. Concerning the Presence of Rutoside and Gallic Derivatives from the Flowers of Cornus mas and Preliminary Research with C. sanguinea. Bull Soc Chim Biol, 43: 661-666.
Cornus masFlower-- -- Delaveau, P., Paris, R. R. 1961. Concerning the Presence of Rutoside and Gallic Derivatives from the Flowers of Cornus mas and Preliminary Research with C. sanguinea. Bull Soc Chim Biol, 43: 661-666.
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- *
Crataegus pentagynaPlant-- -- Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataFlower-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaBud-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaFlower-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataBud-- -- *
Cucumis meloPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Cymbopogon citratusLeaf-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Datura stramoniumPlant-- -- *
Dictamnus albusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Dodonaea viscosaFruit-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- -- *
Echinacea purpureaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea sppLeaf-- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- 10500.0 -0.35 Jim Duke's personal files.
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.69 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.69 *
Eschscholzia californicaInflorescence-- -- *
Eschscholzia californicaFlower5000.0 50000.0 0.02 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 12500.0 -0.23 *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- -1.0 *
Eucalyptus macrorrhunchaPlant120000.0 200000.0 2.32 *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia pulcherrimaLeaf-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed87.0 511.0 -0.82 *
Fagopyrum esculentumFlower40000.0 63700.0 0.23 *
Fagopyrum esculentumStem600.0 50600.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumPetiole505.0 975.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumPlant1000.0 68300.0 0.34 *
Fagopyrum esculentumTesta-- 43.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumLeaf11600.0 63700.0 2.95 *
Fallopia japonicaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Ficus caricaLeaf500.0 14300.0 -0.12 *
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaPlant-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFruit-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFlower-- 1000.0 -0.75 *
Galega officinalisShoot-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf6.0 30000.0 0.86 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ginkgo bilobaPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisLeaf-- 53.0 -1.0 *
Gossypium spPlant-- -- *
Hedera helixStem-- -- *
Hemidesmus indicusFlower-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataShoot-- 1200.0 -0.48 *
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataRoot-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataLeaf-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Humulus lupulusLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.88 *
Hydrangea paniculataFlower-- 41000.0 -0.12 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hyoscyamus nigerLeaf-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumStem-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumLeaf2000.0 3000.0 -0.82 *
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- 10000.0 0.17 *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- 16000.0 -0.44 *
Hypericum perforatumFlower1000.0 2800.0 -0.72 *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Ligustrum lucidumLeaf-- -- *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumLeaf-- 24000.0 0.49 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Maclura pomiferaWood-- -- Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Magnolia kobusFlower-- 500.0 -0.76 *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit Epidermis-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit-- -- *
Malus domesticaLeaf-- 8885.0 -0.45 *
Malus domesticaPericarp-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit Juice-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaFlower-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- *
Melia azedarachLeaf-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mercurialis annuaPlant-- -- *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 500.0 -0.6 *
Morus albaLeaf20000.0 60000.0 2.72 *
Morus albaFruit-- -- *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nasturtium officinaleShoot-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaEmbryo-- -- *
Nerium oleanderLeaf-- -- *
Nicotiana glaucaLeaf12000.0 21000.0 0.3 *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- 10000.0 -0.38 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Nigella sativaSeed-- 200.0 -0.86 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- -- *
Olea europaeaPericarp-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Opuntia ficus-indicaPt-- -- *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Origanum majoranaShoot-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Passiflora incarnataPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Pastinaca sativaPlant-- -- *
Petroselinum crispumShoot-- 44480.0 2.75 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 30000.0 0.86 *
Phaseolus vulgarisShoot-- -- *
Phaseolus aborigineusShoot-- -- *
Phoenix dactyliferaPollen Or Spore-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Phyllanthus niruriPlant-- -- Tramil
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 4600.0 -0.13 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf-- 21000.0 0.3 *
Phyllanthus amarusShoot-- 1378.0 -0.47 *
Physalis peruvianaRoot-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumFruit-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Plumeria acutifoliaPlant-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperLeaf25000.0 30000.0 0.86 *
Polygonum avicularePlant-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaLeaf-- 17700.0 0.09 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- -- *
Prunus spinosaFlower-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Pueraria montanaLeaf-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- -- *
Punica granatumPlant-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Punica granatumLeaf-- -- *
Rheum officinaleRoot-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rheum officinalePlant-- 13000.0 -0.49 *
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf-- 6000.0 -0.63 *
Ribes nigrumLeaf-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- -- *
Ricinus communisLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.88 *
Rosa multifloraFruit-- -- *
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Rumex acetosaLeaf-- 12800.0 -0.21 *
Rumex crispusLeaf-- -- *
Rumex acetosellaShoot-- 5300.0 -0.18 *
Ruscus aculeatusShoot-- -- *
Ruscus aculeatusPlant300.0 400.0 -0.68 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ruscus aculeatusRoot91.0 400.0 *
Ruta graveolensPlant-- 20000.0 -0.38 *
Salix albaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Salix albaLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus canadensisFlower7700.0 52000.0 0.05 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf210.0 9200.0 -0.43 *
Sambucus nigraFlower19000.0 25000.0 -0.37 *
Sambucus canadensisLeaf35000.0 38000.0 1.35 *
Scopolia carniolicaLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Selenicereus grandiflorusFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Serenoa repensFruit-- -- *
Smilax chinaLeaf-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumShoot-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumFlower-- -- *
Solidago giganteaLeaf-- -- *
Solidago virgaureaLeaf-- -- *
Sophora japonicaFruit-- 25000.0 2.19 *
Sophora japonicaFlower128000.0 140000.0 1.42 *
Sophora japonicaLeaf-- 40000.0 1.48 *
Sophora japonicaBud176000.0 229000.0 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaShoot-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 170.0 -0.99 *
Stellaria mediaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Stevia rebaudianaTissue Culture-- 7.0 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Syringa vulgarisPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Tephrosia purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- -- Polovyanov, G. G. 1974. Flavonoids from the Fruit of the Yellow Myrobalan Plum. Chem. Nat. Comp. 10 (5): 690-.
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scorodoniaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Theobroma cacaoLeaf-- -- *
Tribulus terrestrisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 3600.0 -0.71 *
Uncaria tomentosaBark-- -- Van Ginkel, A. 1996. Identification of the Alkaloids and Flavonoids from Uncaria tomentosa Bark by TLC in Quality Control. Phytotherapy Research, 10: S18-S19.
Uncaria guianensisBark-- -- Van Ginkel, A. 1996. Identification of the Alkaloids and Flavonoids from Uncaria tomentosa Bark by TLC in Quality Control. Phytotherapy Research, 10: S18-S19.
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaShoot500.0 6000.0 -0.13 *
Urtica dioicaFlower-- 7000.0 -0.66 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumPlant-- -- *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling-- -- *
Viola tricolorFlower100000.0 230000.0 2.83 *
Viola odorataFlower-- 20000.0 -0.45 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Withania somniferaLeaf-- -- *
Xylopia aethiopicaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 15000.0 -0.07 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.