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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Acacia decurrensPlant-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Adiantum capillus-venerisLeaf-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agathosma betulinaEssential Oil-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- -- *
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Agrimonia eupatoriaInflorescence-- 1700.0 *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaLeaf-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Allium cepaBulb-- 14000.0 *
Amaranthus sp.Plant-- -- *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Ammi visnagaLeaf-- -- *
Ammi visnagaFlower-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensLeaf-- 1400.0 -0.92 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Apium graveolensShoot-- 170.0 -0.56 *
Apium graveolensPlant-- 170.0 -0.68 *
Arachis hypogaeaPlant-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot100.0 560.0 -0.53 *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia absinthiumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Asparagus officinalisRoot-- -- *
Azadirachta indicaLeaf-- -- *
Barosma betulinaEssential Oil-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaShoot-- 20.0 -0.57 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaFlower-- -- *
Calendula officinalisFlower-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf1200.0 1580.0 -0.91 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capparis spinosaFlower-- -- *
Capparis spinosaShoot-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- 3874.0 -0.21 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- 487.0 -0.6 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Cichorium intybusLeaf-- 14000.0 -0.14 *
Cichorium intybusSeed-- 6400.0 0.08 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed15000.0 16500.0 1.61 *
Citrus limonLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensisPericarp-- 6100.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonFruit1.0 2.0 -0.65 *
Citrus sinensisLeaf-- 9000.0 -0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumShoot-- -- *
Cornus masLeaf-- -- Delaveau, P., Paris, R. R. 1961. Concerning the Presence of Rutoside and Gallic Derivatives from the Flowers of Cornus mas and Preliminary Research with C. sanguinea. Bull Soc Chim Biol, 43: 661-666.
Cornus masFlower-- -- Delaveau, P., Paris, R. R. 1961. Concerning the Presence of Rutoside and Gallic Derivatives from the Flowers of Cornus mas and Preliminary Research with C. sanguinea. Bull Soc Chim Biol, 43: 661-666.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataBud-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus pentagynaPlant-- -- Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataFlower-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaBud-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaFlower-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaLeaf-- -- *
Cucumis meloPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Cymbopogon citratusLeaf-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Datura stramoniumPlant-- -- *
Dictamnus albusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaFruit-- -- *
Echinacea sppLeaf-- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Echinacea purpureaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- 10500.0 -0.35 Jim Duke's personal files.
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.69 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.69 *
Eschscholzia californicaFlower5000.0 50000.0 0.02 *
Eschscholzia californicaInflorescence-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 12500.0 -0.23 *
Eucalyptus macrorrhunchaPlant120000.0 200000.0 2.32 *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- -1.0 *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia pulcherrimaLeaf-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumTesta-- 43.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumPlant1000.0 68300.0 0.34 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed87.0 511.0 -0.82 *
Fagopyrum esculentumLeaf11600.0 63700.0 2.95 *
Fagopyrum esculentumPetiole505.0 975.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumFlower40000.0 63700.0 0.23 *
Fagopyrum esculentumStem600.0 50600.0 *
Fallopia japonicaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Ficus caricaLeaf500.0 14300.0 -0.12 *
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaPlant-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFruit-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFlower-- 1000.0 -0.75 *
Galega officinalisShoot-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf6.0 30000.0 0.86 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ginkgo bilobaPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisLeaf-- 53.0 -1.0 *
Gossypium spPlant-- -- *
Hedera helixStem-- -- *
Hemidesmus indicusFlower-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataLeaf-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataShoot-- 1200.0 -0.48 *
Houttuynia cordataRoot-- -- *
Humulus lupulusLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.88 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hydrangea paniculataFlower-- 41000.0 -0.12 *
Hyoscyamus nigerLeaf-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumFlower1000.0 2800.0 -0.72 *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- 16000.0 -0.44 *
Hypericum perforatumStem-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumLeaf2000.0 3000.0 -0.82 *
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- 10000.0 0.17 *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Ligustrum lucidumLeaf-- -- *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumLeaf-- 24000.0 0.49 *
Maclura pomiferaWood-- -- Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Magnolia kobusFlower-- 500.0 -0.76 *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Malus domesticaLeaf-- 8885.0 -0.45 *
Malus domesticaFruit Juice-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit Epidermis-- -- *
Malus domesticaPericarp-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaFlower-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- *
Melia azedarachLeaf-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mercurialis annuaPlant-- -- *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 500.0 -0.6 *
Morus albaLeaf20000.0 60000.0 2.72 *
Morus albaFruit-- -- *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nasturtium officinaleShoot-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaEmbryo-- -- *
Nerium oleanderLeaf-- -- *
Nicotiana glaucaLeaf12000.0 21000.0 0.3 *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- 10000.0 -0.38 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Nigella sativaSeed-- 200.0 -0.86 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- -- *
Olea europaeaPericarp-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Opuntia ficus-indicaPt-- -- *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Origanum majoranaShoot-- -- *
Passiflora incarnataPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Pastinaca sativaPlant-- -- *
Petroselinum crispumShoot-- 44480.0 2.75 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 30000.0 0.86 *
Phaseolus vulgarisShoot-- -- *
Phaseolus aborigineusShoot-- -- *
Phoenix dactyliferaPollen Or Spore-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Phyllanthus niruriPlant-- -- Tramil
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 4600.0 -0.13 *
Phyllanthus amarusShoot-- 1378.0 -0.47 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf-- 21000.0 0.3 *
Physalis peruvianaRoot-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumFruit-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Plumeria acutifoliaPlant-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperLeaf25000.0 30000.0 0.86 *
Polygonum avicularePlant-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaLeaf-- 17700.0 0.09 *
Prunus spinosaFlower-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Pueraria montanaLeaf-- -- *
Punica granatumLeaf-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- -- *
Punica granatumPlant-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Rheum officinaleRoot-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf-- 6000.0 -0.63 *
Rheum officinalePlant-- 13000.0 -0.49 *
Ribes nigrumLeaf-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- -- *
Ricinus communisLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.88 *
Rosa multifloraFruit-- -- *
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Rumex acetosaLeaf-- 12800.0 -0.21 *
Rumex crispusLeaf-- -- *
Rumex acetosellaShoot-- 5300.0 -0.18 *
Ruscus aculeatusShoot-- -- *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot91.0 400.0 *
Ruscus aculeatusPlant300.0 400.0 -0.68 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ruta graveolensPlant-- 20000.0 -0.38 *
Salix albaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Salix albaLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus nigraLeaf210.0 9200.0 -0.43 *
Sambucus nigraFlower19000.0 25000.0 -0.37 *
Sambucus canadensisLeaf35000.0 38000.0 1.35 *
Sambucus canadensisFlower7700.0 52000.0 0.05 *
Scopolia carniolicaLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Selenicereus grandiflorusFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Serenoa repensFruit-- -- *
Smilax chinaLeaf-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumFlower-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumShoot-- -- *
Solidago virgaureaLeaf-- -- *
Solidago giganteaLeaf-- -- *
Sophora japonicaFruit-- 25000.0 2.19 *
Sophora japonicaFlower128000.0 140000.0 1.42 *
Sophora japonicaLeaf-- 40000.0 1.48 *
Sophora japonicaBud176000.0 229000.0 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 170.0 -0.99 *
Spinacia oleraceaShoot-- -- *
Stellaria mediaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Stevia rebaudianaTissue Culture-- 7.0 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Syringa vulgarisPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Tephrosia purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- -- Polovyanov, G. G. 1974. Flavonoids from the Fruit of the Yellow Myrobalan Plum. Chem. Nat. Comp. 10 (5): 690-.
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scorodoniaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Theobroma cacaoLeaf-- -- *
Tribulus terrestrisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 3600.0 -0.71 *
Uncaria tomentosaBark-- -- Van Ginkel, A. 1996. Identification of the Alkaloids and Flavonoids from Uncaria tomentosa Bark by TLC in Quality Control. Phytotherapy Research, 10: S18-S19.
Uncaria guianensisBark-- -- Van Ginkel, A. 1996. Identification of the Alkaloids and Flavonoids from Uncaria tomentosa Bark by TLC in Quality Control. Phytotherapy Research, 10: S18-S19.
Urtica dioicaShoot500.0 6000.0 -0.13 *
Urtica dioicaFlower-- 7000.0 -0.66 Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumPlant-- -- *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling-- -- *
Viola tricolorFlower100000.0 230000.0 2.83 *
Viola odorataFlower-- 20000.0 -0.45 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Withania somniferaLeaf-- -- *
Xylopia aethiopicaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 15000.0 -0.07 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.