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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 15000.0 -0.07 *
Xylopia aethiopicaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Withania somniferaLeaf-- -- *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Viola odorataFlower-- 20000.0 -0.45 *
Viola tricolorFlower100000.0 230000.0 2.83 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumPlant-- -- *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaShoot500.0 6000.0 -0.13 *
Urtica dioicaFlower-- 7000.0 -0.66 Jim Duke's personal files.
Uncaria tomentosaBark-- -- Van Ginkel, A. 1996. Identification of the Alkaloids and Flavonoids from Uncaria tomentosa Bark by TLC in Quality Control. Phytotherapy Research, 10: S18-S19.
Uncaria guianensisBark-- -- Van Ginkel, A. 1996. Identification of the Alkaloids and Flavonoids from Uncaria tomentosa Bark by TLC in Quality Control. Phytotherapy Research, 10: S18-S19.
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 3600.0 -0.71 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Tribulus terrestrisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Theobroma cacaoLeaf-- -- *
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scorodoniaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- -- Polovyanov, G. G. 1974. Flavonoids from the Fruit of the Yellow Myrobalan Plum. Chem. Nat. Comp. 10 (5): 690-.
Tephrosia purpureaLeaf-- -- *
Syringa vulgarisPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Stevia rebaudianaTissue Culture-- 7.0 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stellaria mediaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Spinacia oleraceaShoot-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 170.0 -0.99 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit-- -- *
Sophora japonicaLeaf-- 40000.0 1.48 *
Sophora japonicaBud176000.0 229000.0 *
Sophora japonicaFruit-- 25000.0 2.19 *
Sophora japonicaFlower128000.0 140000.0 1.42 *
Solidago giganteaLeaf-- -- *
Solidago virgaureaLeaf-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumShoot-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumFlower-- -- *
Smilax chinaLeaf-- -- *
Serenoa repensFruit-- -- *
Selenicereus grandiflorusFlower-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Scopolia carniolicaLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sambucus canadensisFlower7700.0 52000.0 0.05 *
Sambucus nigraLeaf210.0 9200.0 -0.43 *
Sambucus nigraFlower19000.0 25000.0 -0.37 *
Sambucus canadensisLeaf35000.0 38000.0 1.35 *
Salix albaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Salix albaLeaf-- -- *
Ruta graveolensPlant-- 20000.0 -0.38 *
Ruscus aculeatusShoot-- -- *
Ruscus aculeatusPlant300.0 400.0 -0.68 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ruscus aculeatusRoot91.0 400.0 *
Rumex acetosaLeaf-- 12800.0 -0.21 *
Rumex crispusLeaf-- -- *
Rumex acetosellaShoot-- 5300.0 -0.18 *
Rubus idaeusPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Rosa multifloraFruit-- -- *
Ricinus communisLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.88 *
Ribes nigrumLeaf-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- -- *
Rheum officinaleRoot-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rheum officinalePlant-- 13000.0 -0.49 *
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf-- 6000.0 -0.63 *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- -- *
Punica granatumPlant-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Punica granatumLeaf-- -- *
Pueraria montanaLeaf-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaLeaf-- 17700.0 0.09 *
Prunus spinosaFlower-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Polygonum hydropiperLeaf25000.0 30000.0 0.86 *
Polygonum avicularePlant-- -- *
Plumeria acutifoliaPlant-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- *
Pimpinella anisumFruit-- -- *
Physalis peruvianaRoot-- -- *
Phyllanthus niruriPlant-- -- Tramil
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit-- 4600.0 -0.13 *
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf-- 21000.0 0.3 *
Phyllanthus amarusShoot-- 1378.0 -0.47 *
Phoenix dactyliferaPollen Or Spore-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Phaseolus vulgarisShoot-- -- *
Phaseolus aborigineusShoot-- -- *
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 30000.0 0.86 *
Petroselinum crispumShoot-- 44480.0 2.75 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Pastinaca sativaPlant-- -- *
Passiflora incarnataPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Origanum majoranaShoot-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Opuntia ficus-indicaFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Opuntia ficus-indicaPt-- -- *
Olea europaeaPericarp-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- -- *
Nigella sativaSeed-- 200.0 -0.86 *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- 10000.0 -0.38 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Nicotiana glaucaLeaf12000.0 21000.0 0.3 *
Nerium oleanderLeaf-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaEmbryo-- -- *
Nasturtium officinaleShoot-- -- *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Morus albaFruit-- -- *
Morus albaLeaf20000.0 60000.0 2.72 *
Morinda citrifoliaFruit-- 500.0 -0.6 *
Mercurialis annuaPlant-- -- *
Menyanthes trifoliataLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha x piperitaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Melia azedarachLeaf-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaFlower-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit Juice-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit Epidermis-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit-- -- *
Malus domesticaLeaf-- 8885.0 -0.45 *
Malus domesticaPericarp-- -- *
Magnolia kobusFlower-- 500.0 -0.76 *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Maclura pomiferaWood-- -- Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Lycopersicon esculentumLeaf-- 24000.0 0.49 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- *
Ligustrum lucidumLeaf-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Illicium verumFruit-- -- *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumFlower1000.0 2800.0 -0.72 *
Hypericum perforatumStem-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumLeaf2000.0 3000.0 -0.82 *
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- 10000.0 0.17 *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- 16000.0 -0.44 *
Hyoscyamus nigerLeaf-- -- *
Hydrangea paniculataFlower-- 41000.0 -0.12 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Humulus lupulusLeaf-- 2000.0 -0.88 *
Houttuynia cordataLeaf-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataShoot-- 1200.0 -0.48 *
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataRoot-- -- *
Hemidesmus indicusFlower-- -- *
Hedera helixStem-- -- *
Gossypium spPlant-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisLeaf-- 53.0 -1.0 *
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf6.0 30000.0 0.86 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ginkgo bilobaPlant-- -- Tyler, V.E.. 1982. The Honest Herbal. George F. Stickley Co., Philadelphia PA. 263 pp.
Galega officinalisShoot-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFruit-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFlower-- 1000.0 -0.75 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaShoot-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaPlant-- -- *
Ficus caricaLeaf500.0 14300.0 -0.12 *
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Fallopia japonicaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed87.0 511.0 -0.82 *
Fagopyrum esculentumFlower40000.0 63700.0 0.23 *
Fagopyrum esculentumStem600.0 50600.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumPetiole505.0 975.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumPlant1000.0 68300.0 0.34 *
Fagopyrum esculentumTesta-- 43.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumLeaf11600.0 63700.0 2.95 *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia pulcherrimaLeaf-- -- *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf-- 12500.0 -0.23 *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- -1.0 *
Eucalyptus macrorrhunchaPlant120000.0 200000.0 2.32 *
Eschscholzia californicaInflorescence-- -- *
Eschscholzia californicaFlower5000.0 50000.0 0.02 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.69 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf-- 5000.0 -0.69 *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- 10500.0 -0.35 Jim Duke's personal files.
Echinacea purpureaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea sppLeaf-- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaFruit-- -- *
Dictamnus albusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Datura stramoniumPlant-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cymbopogon citratusLeaf-- -- *
Cucumis meloPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Crataegus laevigataBud-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- *
Crataegus pentagynaPlant-- -- Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataFlower-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaBud-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaFlower-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaLeaf-- -- *
Cornus masLeaf-- -- Delaveau, P., Paris, R. R. 1961. Concerning the Presence of Rutoside and Gallic Derivatives from the Flowers of Cornus mas and Preliminary Research with C. sanguinea. Bull Soc Chim Biol, 43: 661-666.
Cornus masFlower-- -- Delaveau, P., Paris, R. R. 1961. Concerning the Presence of Rutoside and Gallic Derivatives from the Flowers of Cornus mas and Preliminary Research with C. sanguinea. Bull Soc Chim Biol, 43: 661-666.
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumShoot-- -- *
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Cnicus benedictusPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensisPericarp-- 6100.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonFruit1.0 2.0 -0.65 *
Citrus sinensisLeaf-- 9000.0 -0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrullus lanatusSeed15000.0 16500.0 1.61 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf-- 14000.0 -0.14 *
Cichorium intybusSeed-- 6400.0 0.08 *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- 3874.0 -0.21 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- 487.0 -0.6 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capparis spinosaShoot-- -- *
Capparis spinosaFlower-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf1200.0 1580.0 -0.91 *
Calendula officinalisFlower-- -- *
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaFlower-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaShoot-- 20.0 -0.57 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Barosma betulinaEssential Oil-- -- *
Azadirachta indicaLeaf-- -- *
Asparagus officinalisRoot-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanumPlant-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot100.0 560.0 -0.53 *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Artemisia absinthiumPlant-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Arachis hypogaeaPlant-- -- *
Apium graveolensShoot-- 170.0 -0.56 *
Apium graveolensPlant-- 170.0 -0.68 *
Anethum graveolensLeaf-- 1400.0 -0.92 Varnaite, R. 1988. Rutin Content in Capsicum, Capsella, Urtica, Primula, Lepidium, Lactuca, Brassica, Anethum, Beta, Petroselinum, Allium Genera Representatives. Liet Tsr Mokslu Akad Darb Ser C, 4: 29-32.
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Ammi visnagaLeaf-- -- *
Ammi visnagaFlower-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Plant-- -- *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium sativum var. sativumPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Allium cepaBulb-- 14000.0 *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaLeaf-- -- *
Agrimonia eupatoriaLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Agrimonia eupatoriaInflorescence-- 1700.0 *
Agathosma betulinaEssential Oil-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Adiantum capillus-venerisLeaf-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acacia decurrensPlant-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.