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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit0.6 7.0 0.43 *
Abelmoschus esculentusSeed-- 1.4 -0.81 Wealth of India.
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf2.0 9.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant1.0 5.6 -0.4 *
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 0.65 -0.75 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actinidia chinensisFruit0.5 3.0 -0.43 *
Aegle marmelosFruit12.0 31.0 5.57 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- 1.1 -0.17 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot0.6 1.6 -0.54 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf1.4 10.3 -0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepaBulb0.4 15.0 1.0 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1.0 22.0 -0.07 *
Allium sativum var. sativumFlower0.6 5.2 -0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium ampeloprasumLeaf0.6 9.4 -0.13 *
Allium sativum var. sativumShoot0.6 2.7 -1.53 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.5 3.0 -1.0 *
Allium ampeloprasumFlower1.9 11.2 1.17 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaLeaf0.1 3.4 -0.16 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot0.2 0.6 -0.76 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Aloe spp.Leaf-- -- *
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- 1.0 -1.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Althaea officinalisRoot0.1 0.5 -0.78 *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf1.6 20.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1.0 26.0 -0.06 *
Amorphophallus konjacBark-- -- *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot0.2 3.2 -0.19 *
Anacardium occidentaleLeaf0.1 0.3 -0.18 *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit2.4 16.7 2.5 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed2.0 3.3 -0.09 *
Ananas comosusFruit-- 3.0 -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Anethum graveolensFruit-- 3.0 -0.43 *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- 3.0 -0.59 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensSeed-- 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensisRoot0.8 3.4 -0.15 *
Annona diversifoliaFruit0.3 10.0 1.07 *
Annona squamosaFruit1.0 5.0 -0.0 *
Annona cherimolaFruit1.0 5.5 0.11 *
Annona reticulataFruit0.7 5.5 0.11 *
Annona muricataFruit0.5 6.0 0.21 *
Annona glabraFruit0.7 5.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Apium graveolensFruit0.1 0.6 -0.94 *
Apium graveolensSeed0.1 0.6 -1.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolensPt-- 34.0 1.33 *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed1.3 3.1 -0.16 *
Arachis hypogaeaLeaf5.8 27.0 -0.05 *
Aralia cordataLeaf0.2 4.0 -0.16 *
Arctium lappaRoot0.8 3.4 -0.15 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- -0.18 *
Areca catechuSeed6.9 7.9 1.68 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot4.0 20.0 3.49 *
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot0.2 0.7 -0.74 *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf1.6 13.0 -0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artemisia dracunculusPlant13.0 14.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilisFruit0.3 1.0 -0.86 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit1.0 4.0 -0.22 *
Artocarpus altilisSeed1.0 7.0 1.33 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot2.4 24.0 4.36 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1.0 36.0 1.71 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot0.4 2.5 -0.34 *
Avena sativaSeed0.66 11.7 3.13 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant0.4 2.0 -0.66 *
Averrhoa bilimbiFruit0.25 5.2 0.04 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit0.2 5.2 0.04 *
Bactris gasipaesFruit1.0 6.0 0.21 *
Barosma betulinaLeaf-- 1.1 -0.17 *
Benincasa hispidaFruit0.1 28.0 4.92 *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- 9.4 1.17 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Berberis vulgarisBark-- 9.4 2.07 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed0.35 1.0 -0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisLeaf1.7 26.0 -0.06 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Beta vulgarisRoot0.2 3.9 -0.04 *
Bixa orellanaSeed-- 5.0 0.57 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Bixa orellanaFruit0.5 3.0 -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Blighia sapidaAril1.4 4.5 -0.51 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Blighia sapidaSeed0.9 6.0 0.95 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Boehmeria niveaLeaf2.8 22.0 -0.07 *
Boehmeria niveaShoot-- 16.0 -0.24 *
Borago officinalisLeaf1.0 21.0 -0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf0.7 15.0 -0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot0.3 4.0 -0.02 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf0.6 10.5 -0.13 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1.1 21.0 -0.08 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf0.7 15.0 -0.11 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower0.3 11.0 1.12 *
Brassica oleraceaStem0.2 2.2 -0.91 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf-- 4.0 -0.16 *
Brassica nigraLeaf0.56 9.72 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1.1 21.0 -0.08 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1.0 8.0 -0.14 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf0.4 10.0 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot0.4 4.0 -0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bromelia pinguinShoot0.4 9.0 -0.92 *
Brosimum alicastrumFruit0.1 2.3 -0.58 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Bupleurum chinenseRoot-- -- *
Byrsonima crassifoliaFruit0.1 2.3 -0.58 *
Cajanus cajanSeed1.7 8.0 1.72 *
Cajanus cajanFruit1.6 6.9 0.4 *
Calathea macrosepalaFlower1.0 13.0 1.59 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Camellia sinensisLeaf8.0 12.0 -0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Canavalia ensiformisSeed1.3 1.7 -0.7 *
Canavalia ensiformisFruit1.0 4.7 -0.07 *
Canna indicaRoot0.1 0.3 -0.83 *
Cannabis sativaSeed1.7 2.0 -0.58 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capparis spinosaFlower0.89 2.16 -0.95 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant1.7 14.4 0.21 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit1.0 8.0 0.64 *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- 19.0 3.0 *
Carica papayaLeaf5.0 21.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carica papayaFruit0.4 3.0 -0.43 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower0.5 3.6 -0.61 *
Carthamus tinctoriusSeed1.0 2.0 -0.58 *
Carum carviSeed3.0 4.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviFruit3.0 4.0 -0.22 *
Carya illinoensisSeed1.1 1.3 -0.85 *
Casimiroa edulisFruit0.4 3.9 -0.24 *
Catha edulisLeaf-- 0.5 -0.18 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot1.0 7.9 0.84 *
Centella asiaticaLeaf1.4 13.0 -0.12 *
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 4.3 -0.45 *
Chenopodium albumLeaf12.0 76.0 0.18 *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesLeaf3.0 19.0 -0.09 *
Chenopodium albumSeed1.0 2.0 -0.58 *
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 1.1 -0.72 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum coronariumLeaf1.9 29.0 -0.04 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumLeaf0.5 2.5 -0.17 *
Chrysanthemum coronariumBud2.2 30.0 1.0 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- 2.5 -0.62 *
Chrysophyllum cainitoFruit0.2 1.7 -0.71 *
Cicer arietinumSeed2.0 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf0.7 13.0 -0.12 *
Cichorium intybusRoot-- 2.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium intybusLeaf1.0 29.0 -0.04 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot0.1 0.7 -0.74 *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- 1.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark1.0 2.0 -0.37 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrullus lanatusFruit2.0 8.0 0.64 *
Citrus reticulataFruit-- 4.0 -0.22 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit1.0 3.0 -0.43 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 5.0 -0.0 *
Citrus limonFruit2.0 3.0 -0.43 *
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 3.0 -0.43 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 2.0 -0.64 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant0.3 2.1 -0.65 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf3.0 25.0 -0.06 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed0.2 0.7 -1.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabicaSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabicaLeaf-- 2.0 -0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed0.6 2.1 -0.55 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cola acuminataSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot0.2 1.6 -0.54 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf3.0 35.0 -0.01 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf2.6 44.0 0.03 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf1.0 21.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coriandrum sativumFruit3.0 4.0 -0.22 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Corylus avellanaSeed0.6 4.4 0.34 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- *
Crescentia alataSeed-- 1.2 -0.89 *
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style56.0 138.0 1.0 *
Cucumis sativusFruit0.2 5.1 0.02 *
Cucumis meloFruit0.2 2.4 -0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita pepoSeed2.7 4.9 0.53 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit1.1 13.1 1.73 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita sppFruit0.4 6.0 0.21 *
Cucurbita pepoFlower0.7 15.0 2.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cuminum cyminumFruit3.0 4.0 -0.22 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed3.0 4.0 0.18 *
Curcuma longaRhizome-- 12.0 1.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Curcuma longaPlant-- -- *
Cyclanthera pedataFruit0.3 5.0 -0.0 *
Cydonia oblongaFruit0.3 1.9 -0.67 *
Cynara cardunculusFlower0.6 7.0 0.19 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit0.3 3.0 -0.43 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot0.2 1.0 -0.67 *
Daucus carotaRoot0.6 5.0 0.2 *
Dioscorea alataRoot0.2 1.1 -0.65 *
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 0.65 -0.75 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot0.1 0.6 -0.76 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot0.2 1.0 -0.67 *
Diospyros digynaFruit0.3 1.5 -0.75 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Durio zibethinusFruit2.0 10.0 1.07 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Echinacea sppBark-- 3.0 -0.04 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Echinacea purpureaRoot3.0 12.0 1.73 *
Elaeagnus commutataFruit0.5 3.6 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit2.9 16.0 2.35 *
Elaeis guineensisFruit1.0 1.7 -0.71 *
Eleocharis dulcisTuber0.2 9.0 1.71 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elettaria cardamomumSeed1.0 2.0 -0.58 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot0.5 2.4 -0.37 *
Ephedra sinicaPlant2.3 11.0 -0.03 *
Equisetum arvensePlant0.4 1.9 -0.66 *
Eriobotrya japonicaFruit0.4 4.2 -0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf-- -- *
Eryngium floridanumShoot-- 15.0 -0.33 *
Erythrina fuscaLeaf1.7 5.2 -0.15 *
Erythrina berteroanaShoot1.9 12.0 -0.63 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf15.0 20.0 -0.08 *
Eugenia unifloraFruit0.4 4.5 -0.11 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eugenia brasiliensisFruit0.3 1.9 -0.67 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Eugenia floribundaFruit0.2 1.6 -0.73 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant3.0 18.0 0.46 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed1.7 1.8 -0.66 *
Ficus caricaFruit-- 5.7 0.15 *
Foeniculum vulgarePlant1.0 14.0 0.18 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Foeniculum vulgareSeed0.4 3.8 0.11 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- 4.0 -0.22 *
Fragaria sppFruit0.7 8.0 0.64 *
Frangula purshianaBark-- -- -1.03 *
Fucus vesiculosusPlant-- -- -0.8 *
Garcinia mangostanaFruit0.2 1.3 -0.79 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Genipa americanaFruit0.4 1.2 -0.82 *
Gentiana luteaRoot0.5 2.1 -0.43 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed1.0 3.0 -0.2 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf0.3 1.2 -0.17 *
Gliricidia sepiumLeaf0.8 5.0 -0.15 *
Gliricidia sepiumFlower0.8 6.0 -0.05 *
Glycine maxSprout Seedling1.5 15.0 0.22 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxSeed1.7 13.0 3.63 *
Glycine maxFruit1.6 5.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot0.3 1.6 -0.54 *
Gossypium spSeed-- 2.3 -0.47 *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Helianthus annuusSeed2.0 3.0 -0.2 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Helianthus tuberosusTuber0.5 3.0 -0.42 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffaLeaf1.0 31.0 -0.03 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower0.1 0.5 -1.34 *
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisFlower0.4 4.7 -0.35 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hordeum vulgareStem27.0 28.0 1.39 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed1.0 9.0 2.1 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 10.0 1.07 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Humulus lupulusFlower2.0 10.1 0.91 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot0.6 2.0 -0.45 *
Hylocereus undatusFruit0.4 2.6 -0.52 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hylocereus guatemalensisFruit0.4 2.5 -0.54 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- -- *
Inga edulisSeed1.3 3.5 -0.01 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Inga feuilleiAril0.7 4.4 -0.89 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Inula heleniumRoot0.7 3.2 -0.19 *
Ipomoea batatasLeaf2.6 19.0 -0.09 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1.0 16.0 -0.1 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot0.3 7.0 0.64 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 1.0 -0.86 *
Juglans nigraPericarp0.1 1.0 *
Juglans regiaSeed1.0 5.0 0.57 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juglans nigraSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juniperus communisFruit0.2 0.6 -0.94 *
Justicia pectoralisLeaf-- 2013.0 9.26 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lablab purpureusSeed0.92 7.58 1.55 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit0.2 4.9 -0.02 *
Larrea tridentataPlant0.6 1.7 -0.68 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling1.0 5.0 -0.98 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed2.0 3.0 -0.2 *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot3.5 4.0 -0.02 *
Lepidium sativumLeaf1.7 25.0 -0.06 *
Licania platypusFruit0.13 0.76 -0.91 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Limonia acidissimaFruit1.7 5.6 0.13 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 1.7 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lobelia inflataLeaf-- -- *
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit0.6 12.0 1.5 *
Luffa aegyptiacaLeaf0.6 6.0 -0.15 *
Lupinus mutabilisFruit1.5 5.2 0.04 *
Lupinus albusSeed2.0 3.0 -0.2 *
Lupinus mutabilisSeed4.4 4.9 0.53 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf3.1 30.0 -0.04 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycium chinenseFruit-- 1.4 -0.77 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit1.0 8.0 0.64 *
Macadamia sppSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malpighia glabraFruit0.6 7.0 0.43 *
Malus domesticaFruit-- 1.3 -0.79 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Malva sylvestrisLeaf2.0 35.0 -0.01 *
Malva parvifloraPlant-- 2.0 -0.66 *
Mammea americanaFruit0.2 3.8 -0.26 *
Mangifera indicaLeaf0.6 2.7 -0.17 *
Mangifera indicaFruit0.5 3.3 -0.37 *
Manihot esculentaLeaf3.0 15.0 -0.11 *
Manihot esculentaRoot0.2 3.2 -0.19 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit-- 0.4 -0.99 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Maranta arundinaceaRoot0.2 0.7 -0.74 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Medicago sativaPlant2.7 14.2 0.19 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit0.1 6.4 0.3 *
Mentha spicataPlant1.0 12.0 0.04 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mentha x piperitaLeaf6.0 38.9 0.0 *
Mimosa pudicaLeaf0.5 7.0 -0.15 *
Mimulus glabratusShoot2.0 20.0 0.15 *
Momordica charantiaLeaf4.6 31.0 -0.03 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Momordica charantiaFruit0.4 9.0 0.85 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Morinda citrifoliaLeaf0.9 4.0 -0.16 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Moringa oleiferaShoot6.0 30.0 1.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaFruit0.7 6.3 0.28 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf0.6 6.0 -0.15 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Morus albaFruit1.0 14.0 1.93 *
Mucuna pruriensSeed1.1 2.7 -0.32 *
Muntingia calaburaFruit0.4 2.1 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 8.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Murraya spFruit0.4 1.9 -0.67 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit0.4 6.0 0.21 *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit0.4 6.7 0.36 *
Myrciaria caulifloraFruit0.2 1.3 -0.79 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myrica ceriferaBark-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myristica fragransAril4.0 5.0 1.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1.0 25.0 1.0 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed0.4 2.6 -0.35 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome0.6 3.7 -0.42 *
Nepeta catariaPlant0.4 3.6 -0.54 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf3.0 4.0 -0.16 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 0.6 -1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit0.2 2.2 -0.6 *
Origanum majoranaPlant-- 3.0 -0.59 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oryza sativaSeed0.5 0.7 -1.08 *
Oxalis tuberosaRoot0.3 4.3 0.05 *
Pachira macrocarpaSeed-- 0.6 -1.12 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber0.3 2.8 -0.49 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- 1.0 -0.73 *
Panax ginsengRoot0.4 1.8 -0.5 *
Papaver somniferumSeed1.6 1.93 -0.61 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot0.3 2.0 -0.45 *
Passiflora quadrangularisSeed1.2 6.0 0.95 *
Passiflora ligularisFruit0.6 6.2 0.26 *
Passiflora incarnataFlower0.1 0.5 -1.34 *
Passiflora quadrangularisFruit0.3 5.0 -0.0 *
Passiflora edulisFruit1.0 5.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora mollissimaFruit0.3 3.8 -0.26 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pastinaca sativaRoot0.5 4.0 -0.02 *
Peperomia pereskiifoliaLeaf2.5 17.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Peperomia pelucidaLeaf0.7 9.0 -0.14 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pereskia aculeataFruit0.3 9.4 0.94 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescensSeed1.0 8.0 1.72 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescensLeaf3.0 23.0 -0.07 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Persea schiedeanaFruit0.7 4.0 -0.22 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Persea americanaFruit1.0 7.7 0.58 *
Petasites japonicusPt0.2 3.6 -1.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Petroselinum crispumPlant1.0 13.5 0.15 *
Phaseolus lunatusSprout Seedling1.4 3.9 -1.11 *
Phaseolus coccineusFruit1.4 1.9 -0.67 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf0.6 4.5 -0.16 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus lunatusSeed0.3 5.1 0.6 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed1.2 1.3 -0.85 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling2.5 27.0 1.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit1.0 12.0 1.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus coccineusSeed1.1 2.2 -0.51 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed1.2 3.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit0.2 1.3 -0.79 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit0.4 2.5 -0.54 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phyllanthus acidusFruit0.1 2.0 -0.64 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit0.2 2.4 -0.56 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit0.2 1.4 -0.77 *
Phytolacca americanaShoot3.0 39.0 2.0 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf2.3 3.5 -0.16 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit-- 0.7 -0.92 *
Pinus cembroidesSeed2.0 2.5 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus edulisSeed2.0 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed2.0 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Piper nigrumFruit0.4 2.8 -0.47 *
Piper betelLeaf0.2 2.0 -0.17 *
Piper auritumLeaf2.4 13.5 -0.11 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pisum sativumFruit0.8 8.0 0.64 *
Pisum sativumSeed1.2 6.7 1.22 *
Plantago majorSeed-- -- *
Plantago psylliumSeed-- -- -1.35 *
Platonia insignisFruit0.4 1.4 -0.77 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot3.9 4.7 0.14 *
Plectranthus amboinicusLeaf0.7 12.5 -0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- 0.9 -0.69 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polymnia edulisRoot0.2 1.1 -0.65 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb1.0 23.0 -1.0 *
Pourouma cecropiaefoliaFruit2.2 12.0 1.5 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Pouteria caimitoFruit0.2 7.7 0.58 *
Pouteria viridisFruit0.3 0.9 -0.88 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pouteria campechianaFruit-- 0.9 -0.88 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Prunus salicifoliaFruit0.2 1.2 -0.82 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus dulcisSeed1.6 9.7 2.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaSeed-- 5.3 0.68 *
Prunus domesticaFruit0.9 6.5 0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit0.4 4.4 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit1.0 4.0 -0.22 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- 5.0 -0.0 *
Psidium guajavaFruit0.4 4.0 -0.22 *
Psidium cattleianumFruit0.2 1.9 -0.67 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed1.0 7.7 1.6 *
Pueraria montanaShoot-- 8.0 -1.02 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatumFruit-- 4.0 -0.22 *
Pyrus communisFruit0.4 2.4 -0.56 *
Quararibea cordataFruit0.2 4.5 -0.11 *
Quercus albaBark-- -- -1.03 *
Raphanus sativusLeaf2.6 24.0 -0.07 *
Raphanus sativusFruit0.3 5.3 0.06 *
Raphanus sativusRoot0.3 9.3 1.14 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt0.3 14.0 -0.25 *
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf0.2 3.0 -0.16 *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- -- *
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- 1.1 -0.72 *
Ribes rubrumFruit1.0 3.0 -0.43 *
Ribes nigrumFruit1.0 3.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 2.0 -0.64 *
Ricinus communisSeed-- 1.0 -0.97 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rollinia mucosaFruit0.4 1.8 -0.69 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Rosa caninaFruit1.4 7.2 0.47 *
Rosa sppFruit-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant1.5 5.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubus idaeusLeaf-- -- *
Rubus idaeusFruit0.9 6.7 0.36 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rumex crispusLeaf0.8 10.8 -0.13 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rumex acetosaLeaf2.2 22.0 -0.07 *
Rumex crispusRoot3.0 10.8 1.47 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot0.4 1.4 -0.59 *
Salix albaBark0.3 1.7 -0.47 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf0.6 3.6 -0.16 *
Sambucus canadensisFruit1.0 3.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus nigraPlant0.6 0.7 -0.75 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit0.1 0.5 -0.97 *
Sclerocarya caffraFruit0.5 6.0 0.21 *
Sclerocarya caffraSeed-- 1.2 -0.89 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant0.3 2.2 -0.64 *
Secale cerealeSeed1.0 2.0 -0.58 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sechium eduleFruit0.4 5.7 0.15 *
Sechium eduleShoot0.8 11.0 -0.72 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf7.0 35.0 -0.01 *
Serenoa repensFruit1.0 7.3 0.49 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sesamum indicumSeed0.6 3.0 -0.2 *
Sesamum indicumLeaf-- 21.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sicana odoriferaFruit0.4 3.2 -0.39 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sida rhombifoliaLeaf4.7 24.0 -0.07 *
Silybum marianumLeaf0.4 2.0 -0.17 *
Sinapis albaSeed-- 4.0 0.18 *
Smilax sppRoot-- -- *
Smilax officinalisRoot-- -- *
Solanum quitoensisFruit0.3 5.0 -0.0 *
Solanum nigrumPlant1.0 23.0 0.81 *
Solanum melongenaFruit0.2 8.8 0.81 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber0.4 1.9 -0.81 *
Solanum torvumFruit0.9 6.0 0.21 *
Sonchus oleraceusLeaf1.0 16.0 -0.1 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1.8 23.4 0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spirulina pratensisPlant-- 46.0 2.41 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Spirulina spp.Plant-- 46.0 2.41 *
Spondias pinnataFruit0.2 2.1 -0.62 *
Spondias mombinFruit0.3 3.5 -0.32 *
Spondias purpureaFruit0.3 2.1 -0.62 *
Spondias dulcisFruit0.2 1.5 -0.75 *
Stachys officinalisPlant-- -- *
Stellaria mediaPlant0.1 1.3 -0.7 *
Sterculia urensGum17.0 31.0 *
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 7.2 0.68 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinaleLeaf0.8 7.2 -0.14 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower1.0 2.0 -0.99 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit1.0 2.0 -0.64 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium jambosFruit0.3 1.7 -0.71 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Syzygium cuminiFruit0.1 0.7 -0.92 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium malaccenseFruit0.2 3.3 -0.37 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaLeaf1.0 5.0 -0.15 *
Tamarindus indicaFruit1.0 3.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tamarindus indicaFlower-- 6.0 -0.05 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- 2.5 -0.62 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot0.3 2.1 -0.43 *
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf1.0 18.0 -0.09 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Terminalia catappaSeed0.8 3.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tetragonia tetragonioidesLeaf1.0 20.0 -0.08 *
Theobroma bicolorSeed3.4 3.5 -0.01 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Theobroma cacaoFruit1.6 3.8 -0.26 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma bicolorFruit1.5 7.2 0.47 *
Theobroma speciosumFruit10.0 27.0 4.71 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma cacaoSeed1.0 4.0 0.18 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisLeaf0.7 4.3 -0.16 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant4.0 53.0 2.9 *
Trachyspermum ammiFruit2.8 3.0 -0.43 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot1.0 10.0 1.3 *
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit0.6 11.0 1.28 *
Trifolium pratenseFlower0.6 3.3 -0.68 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed0.4 3.2 -0.12 *
Triticum aestivumSeed0.7 8.0 1.72 *
Triticum aestivumPlant11.0 40.0 1.99 *
Tropaeolum tuberosumRoot0.8 8.5 0.97 *
Tropaeolum majusShoot3.5 25.5 0.69 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf-- -- *
Ullucus tuberosusRoot0.2 2.2 -0.41 *
Ulmus rubraBark0.7 4.1 0.32 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf0.9 4.3 -0.16 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit0.5 3.4 -0.34 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit0.2 2.6 -0.52 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit0.2 1.9 -0.67 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot0.1 1.2 -0.63 *
Verbascum thapsusLeaf0.5 1.1 -0.17 *
Vicia fabaSeed1.1 6.0 0.95 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed1.5 4.5 0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna subterraneaSeed1.4 1.6 -0.74 *
Vigna mungoSeed2.0 2.2 -0.51 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed2.3 2.6 -0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1.0 15.0 0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed1.8 3.0 -0.2 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot1.8 17.0 -0.14 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot1.8 17.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit1.1 9.0 0.85 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed2.1 2.8 -0.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed0.9 1.0 -0.97 *
Vitis viniferaStem-- 6.9 -0.49 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vitis viniferaPlant0.5 3.2 -0.57 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot0.3 0.9 -0.69 *
Yucca baccataRoot1.4 6.7 0.57 *
Yucca baccataBark-- 7.0 1.28 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zea maysCob1.0 3.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- 1.5 -1.0 *
Zea maysFruit1.0 4.0 -0.22 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot0.2 3.1 -0.21 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 5.0 -0.1 *
Zizyphus spina-christiFruit-- 1.4 -0.77 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit0.3 2.4 -0.56 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.