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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus moschatusSeed-- 65000.0 -0.44 Wealth of India.
Abies balsameaGum-- -- *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- 6000.0 -0.86 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 25000.0 -1.38 Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Actaea racemosaRoot-- -- *
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- 50000.0 -0.28 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Aloe veraPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anaphalis margaritaceaPlant-- -- *
Andira inermisBark-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Apocynum cannabinumPlant-- -- *
Areca catechuSeed-- -- *
Argemone mexicanaPlant-- 17500.0 -0.79 *
Arundo donaxStem-- -- *
Azadirachta indicaSeed-- -- *
Baptisia tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Barosma betulinaLeaf-- 50000.0 -0.28 *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Borago officinalisPlant-- -- *
Boswellia sacraLatex Exudate600000.0 700000.0 0.9 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Bursera simarubaPlant-- -- *
Bursera delpechianaWood-- -- *
Calendula officinalisFlower-- 34000.0 *
Canarium indicumGum-- -- *
Carica papayaLatex Exudate-- 28000.0 -1.53 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Catharanthus roseusRoot Bark-- 20000.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ceiba pentandraLeaf-- -- *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Chamaesyce hypericifoliaPlant-- -- *
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot-- -- *
Cinchona sppBark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Commiphora myrrhaResin, Exudate, Sap200000.0 400000.0 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Copaifera sppGum60000.0 540000.0 -1.0 *
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Cornus floridaBark-- -- *
Croton tigliumSeed10000.0 34000.0 -1.09 *
Croton eluteriaBark-- 150000.0 1.56 *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cryptostegia grandifoliaSeed-- 175000.0 1.87 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cuminum cyminumFruit-- -- *
Curcuma zedoariaRhizome-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Curcuma longaRhizome-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cyperus rotundusRoot-- 42100.0 0.67 *
Daemonorops dracoFruit-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaLeaf-- 66400.0 0.53 *
Echinacea purpureaRoot5020.0 20000.0 -1.17 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra nevadensisPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf8800.0 80000.0 1.19 *
Eucommia ulmoidesBark-- 70000.0 0.15 Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia tirucalliLatex Exudate-- -- *
Euphorbia hirtaPlant-- -- *
Ferula sumbulPlant-- 170000.0 0.16 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ferula assa-foetidaPlant400000.0 640000.0 3.07 Tucker, A. O. and Debaggio, T. 2000. The Big Book of Herbs. Interweave Press, Inc. Loveland, CO. 688 pp.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 22000.0 -1.65 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Garcinia hanburyiPlant-- -- *
Geranium maculatumPlant-- -- *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Glycyrrhiza glabraPlant-- -- *
Grindelia squarrosaPlant-- 200000.0 0.34 *
Guaiacum sp.Wood-- 200000.0 1.32 *
Guarea rusbyiBark-- 23000.0 -0.67 *
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hedera helixPlant-- -- *
Hemidesmus indicusRoot-- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffaCalyx-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Holarrhena pubescensBark-- 2000.0 -1.04 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hydrastis canadensisRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Hyoscyamus nigerSeed-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- -- *
Ilex paraguariensisLeaf-- 48000.0 -0.37 *
Inula heleniumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea purgaTuber100000.0 200000.0 *
Iris versicolorRhizome-- -- *
Iris x germanicaRhizome-- -- *
Jasminum officinaleLeaf-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit80000.0 100000.0 0.5 *
Lactuca scariolaLatex Exudate-- -- *
Lagochilus inebriansPlant30000.0 90000.0 -0.34 *
Larrea tridentataPlant49350.0 200000.0 0.34 *
Lawsonia inermisLeaf20000.0 30000.0 -1.25 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Leonotis leonurusPlant-- 198000.0 0.33 *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- *
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ligustrum vulgareBark-- -- *
Lindera benzoinPlant-- -- *
Lobelia inflataPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycopus europeusPlant-- 29000.0 -0.72 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Maclura pomiferaFruit166640.0 216900.0 2.0 Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Mahonia aquifoliumPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Manilkara zapotaLatex Exudate-- 380000.0 -0.26 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Marrubium vulgarePlant-- -- *
Melia azedarachPlant-- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Mirabilis jalapaRoot-- 30000.0 -0.34 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Myrica ceriferaBark-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Myroxylon balsamumGum-- -- *
Myrtus communisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nigella sativaSeed-- -- *
Oenanthe aquaticaFruit-- 40000.0 -0.27 *
Oenothera biennisPlant-- -- *
Ononis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Opopanax chironiumPlant-- 190000.0 0.28 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Opopanax chironiumHh-- 190000.0 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Paullinia cupanaSeed-- 70000.0 -0.34 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Peucedanum ostruthiumPlant-- -- *
Peumus boldusPlant-- -- *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Physalis peruvianaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.76 *
Physalis alkekingiFruit-- 2000.0 -0.76 *
Phytolacca americanaRoot-- -- *
Piper methysticumRoot-- 53000.0 1.58 Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Piper nigrumFruit-- 5000.0 -0.72 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper angustifoliumLeaf-- -- *
Pistacia veraPlant-- -- *
Plantago majorPlant-- -- *
Podophyllum peltatumPlant30000.0 60000.0 -0.53 *
Podophyllum hexandrumRhizome60000.0 200000.0 0.43 *
Podophyllum hexandrumLeaf78000.0 97000.0 2.03 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Polygala tenuifoliaRoot-- -- *
Polypodium vulgareRhizome-- -- *
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- 24000.0 -0.75 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunella vulgarisPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus serotinaStem Bark-- -- *
Psoralea corylifoliaSeed-- 86000.0 0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pterocarpus marsupiumWood-- 9000.0 -1.11 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Quercus roburBark-- -- *
Quercus albaBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rheum officinaleRoot-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Robinia pseudoacaciaBark-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaFlower-- -- *
Rosa gallicaFlower-- -- *
Rumex hymenosepalusPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ruscus aculeatusRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Salix albaBark-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Salvia officinalisPlant50000.0 60000.0 -0.53 *
Sambucus canadensisSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sambucus nigraLeaf-- 43400.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sanguinaria canadensisPlant-- -- *
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Santalum albumWood50000.0 80000.0 -0.21 *
Santolina chamaecyparissusPlant-- -- *
Sassafras albidumRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Schinus terebinthifoliusBark-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Scutellaria churchillianaPlant-- -- *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Senecio aureusPlant-- -- *
Simarouba amaraBark-- -- *
Smilax sppRoot-- 25000.0 -0.75 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Smilax chinaRoot-- -- *
Stillingia sylvaticaPlant-- -- *
Styrax tonkinensisGum700000.0 800000.0 1.0 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Styrax benzoinPlant-- -- *
Swertia chirataPlant-- -- *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidusPlant-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot-- -- *
Teucrium marumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thevetia peruvianaLatex Exudate674000.0 697000.0 0.89 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thuja occidentalisBranches-- -- *
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Turnera diffusaBranches-- 65000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Turnera diffusaLeaf13650.0 65000.0 0.46 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Veratrum albumRhizome-- 250000.0 0.95 *
Veronica officinalisPlant-- -- *
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viscum albumPlant-- -- *
Xylopia aethiopicaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zanthoxylum americanumPlant-- -- *
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Zizyphus jujubaLeaf-- 60000.0 0.21 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.