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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFlower-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Abelmoschus moschatusFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Abutilon theophrastiLeaf-- -- Matlawska, I. 1990. Investigation of Flavonoid Compounds of Selected Species from Malvaceae Family. Herba Pol., 36(3): 65-69.
Abutilon theophrastiFlower-- -- Matlawska, I. 1990. Investigation of Flavonoid Compounds of Selected Species from Malvaceae Family. Herba Pol., 36(3): 65-69.
Abutilon theophrastiRoot-- -- Paszkowski, W. L., Kremer, R. J. 1988. Biological Activity and Tentative Identification of Flavonoid Components in Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) Seed Coats. J. Chem. Ecol., 14(7): 1573-1582.
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 430.0 1.41 Jim Duke's personal files.
Actinidia chinensisPlant-- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanumSeed-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agathosma betulinaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Ageratum conyzoidesPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Agrimonia eupatoriaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot-- -- *
Ailanthus altissimaLeaf-- -- *
Albizia lebbeckLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.08 200.0 -1.0 *
Allium cepaBulb-- 48100.0 1.0 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf-- 9.0 -0.35 *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- *
Althaea officinalisLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Ammi majusLeaf-- -- *
Ammi visnagaPlant-- -- *
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaLeaf-- -- *
Anethum graveolensPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Anogeissus latifoliaPlant-- -- *
Apium graveolensPt-- -- *
Arachis hypogaeaPlant-- -- *
Araucaria bidwilliiFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- *
Ardisia japonicaPlant-- -- *
Armoracia rusticanaLeaf-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia annuaPlant-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisLeaf-- -- *
Asimina trilobaLeaf-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 1.3 -0.75 *
Aspalathus linearisPlant-- 7.5 -1.0 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Avena sativaHay-- 310.0 *
Azadirachta indicaLeaf-- -- *
Azadirachta indicaFlower-- 1000.0 0.94 *
Barosma betulinaPlant-- -- *
Basella albaPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Beta vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Borago officinalisPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaSprout Seedling-- 25.0 Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Brassica oleraceaShoot-- 20.0 -0.66 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf7.0 50.0 -0.35 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower-- 6.0 -1.41 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf2.0 100.0 -0.35 Jim Duke's personal files.
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaFlower-- -- *
Calendula officinalisPlant-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 10000.0 -0.19 *
Camellia sinensisShoot-- -- *
Camellia sinensisPlant-- -- *
Camptotheca acuminataLeaf-- -- *
Capparis spinosaFlower-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- 63.0 -0.46 Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Carum carviSeed-- -- *
Carum carviFruit-- -- *
Carum carviFlower-- -- *
Carum carviLeaf-- -- *
Castanea sativaBark-- -- *
Castanea sativaWood-- -- *
Castanea sativaLeaf-- -- *
Catharanthus roseusPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cedrus deodoraStem Bark-- -- *
Ceiba pentandraLeaf-- -- *
Centaurea cyanusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Centaurea calcitrapaPlant-- -- *
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Ceratonia siliquaFruit-- -- Wealth of India.
Cichorium endiviaLeaf-- -- *
Cichorium intybusSeed-- 1.0 *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Citrus limonFlower-- -- *
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 3.4 -0.79 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Commiphora wightiiFlower-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Consolida ajacisFlower-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumShoot-- -- *
Coriaria thymifoliaPlant-- -- *
Coriaria myrtifoliaLeaf-- -- *
Cornus masLeaf-- -- Bate-Smith, E. C., Ferguson, I. K., Hutson, K., Jensen, S. R., Nielsen, B. J., Swain, T. 1975. Phytochemical Interrelationships in the Cornaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 3: 79.
Cornus floridaFlower-- -- *
Corylus avellanaBark-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaLeaf-- 20.0 -0.35 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFlower-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataFlower-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Crataegus laevigataPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Crataegus cuneataFruit-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaFlower-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaShoot-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataShoot-- -- *
Crocus sativusFlower-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Cucurbita pepoLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Curcuma longaRhizome90.0 95.0 -1.0 *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaFruit-- -- Daniel, M. 1989. Polyphenols of Some Indian Vegetables. Curr Sci, 58(23): 1332-1334.
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- *
Cynara cardunculusLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cytisus scopariusPlant-- -- *
Daucus carotaSeed-- -- *
Diospyros virginianaPlant-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaPlant-- -- *
Drimys winteriLeaf-- -- *
Echinacea purpureaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea angustifoliaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea sppLeaf-- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Elaeagnus angustifoliaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Equisetum arvenseSprout Seedling-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Eriobotrya japonicaPlant-- -- *
Eucalyptus globulusStem Bark-- 0.3 *
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- *
Eucommia ulmoidesLeaf-- -- *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia hirtaPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia lathyrisLeaf-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumPlant-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumTesta-- 25.0 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSprout Seedling-- -- *
Ficus caricaPlant-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgareLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- *
Forsythia suspensaFlower-- -- *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- *
Galega officinalisShoot-- -- *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaTissue Culture-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxPlant-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraShoot-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisLeaf-- 7.0 -0.35 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- *
Gossypium spPlant-- -- *
Guazuma tomentosaFlower-- -- *
Haematoxylum campechianumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hamamelis virginianaLeaf-- -- *
Helianthus annuusLeaf60.0 210.0 -0.35 *
Helianthus annuusFlower100.0 400.0 -0.48 *
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Holarrhena pubescensLeaf-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Humulus lupulusPlant-- -- *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Hypericum perforatumLeaf-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumShoot-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- 20000.0 1.0 *
Hypericum perforatumFlower-- 1000.0 0.94 *
Hypericum perforatumStem-- -- *
Inula heleniumInflorescence-- -- *
Ipomoea batatasRoot-- -- *
Isatis tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Juglans nigraLeaf-- -- *
Juglans regiaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Kalanchoe spathulataLeaf-- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnataLeaf-- -- *
Lactuca sativaPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ledum palustreLeaf-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Ligustrum lucidumFruit-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Lippia dulcisPlant-- -- *
Ludwigia perennisPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Ludwigia adscendensPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Maclura pomiferaFruit270.0 520.0 2.0 *
Maclura pomiferaRoot360.0 1130.0 *
Maclura pomiferaWood-- -- Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Maclura pomiferaBark-- 14.0 *
Magnolia kobusPlant-- -- *
Magnolia denudataPlant-- -- *
Magnolia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Malus domesticaHeart Wood-- -- *
Malus domesticaPericarp58.0 263.0 1.0 Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Malus domesticaFruit2.5 41.0 -0.58 *
Mangifera indicaPlant-- -- *
Maranta arundinaceaLeaf-- -- *
Marrubium vulgarePlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Medicago sativaFlower-- -- *
Melia azedarachPlant-- -- *
Melilotus officinalisFlower-- -- *
Melilotus officinalisLeaf-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Moringa oleiferaFlower-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Morus albaPlant-- -- *
Musa x paradisiacaPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Myristica fragransPlant-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaFlower-- -- *
Nerium oleanderLeaf-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- -- *
Oenothera biennisLeaf91000.0 207000.0 3.0 *
Oenothera biennisHerb-- -- *
Olea europaeaStem-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ononis spinosaShoot-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Origanum vulgareLeaf-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Paeonia moutanLeaf-- -- *
Paeonia lactifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia suffruticosaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Panax notoginsengRoot-- -- *
Passiflora incarnataLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Pastinaca sativaLeaf-- -- *
Perilla frutescensLeaf-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Persea americanaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Petasites hybridusLeaf-- -- Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- -- *
Petroselinum crispumPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Petroselinum crispumTissue Culture-- -- *
Phoenix dactyliferaPollen Or Spore-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Phyllanthus niruriPlant-- -- *
Phyllanthus emblicaTissue Culture-- 11850.0 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Pinus sylvestrisBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus mugoWood-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Plumeria acutifoliaFlower-- -- *
Podophyllum peltatumResin, Exudate, Sap-- 50000.0 *
Podophyllum pleianthumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Podophyllum hexandrumRhizome5600.0 12000.0 1.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Polygonum avicularePlant-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperoidesPlant-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- -- *
Populus tacamahaccaPlant-- -- *
Prosopis julifloraPlant-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisFlower-- -- *
Prunus spinosaFlower-- -- *
Prunus laurocerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Prunus serotinaPlant-- -- *
Prunus dulcisPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaPlant-- -- *
Prunus persicaPlant-- -- *
Prunus domesticaPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- -- *
Psidium guajavaLeaf-- 200.0 -0.35 *
Psidium guajavaFlower-- -- *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- -- *
Psidium cattleianumPlant-- -- *
Psidium guajavaRoot-- -- *
Psidium guajavaHeart Wood-- -- *
Pteridium aquilinumPlant-- -- *
Pueraria montanaFlower-- -- *
Pueraria montanaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pueraria montanaRoot-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit-- -- *
Punica granatumPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumPericarp-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Punica granatumLeaf-- -- *
Pyrus communisPericarp-- 28.0 -1.0 *
Quercus roburBark-- -- *
Quercus infectoriaLeaf-- -- *
Quercus albaBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus velutinaPlant-- -- *
Rhododendron dauricumPlant-- -- *
Rhus toxicodendronPlant-- -- *
Rhus coriariaLeaf-- -- Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ricinus communisPlant-- -- *
Rosa damascenaFlower-- -- *
Rosa sppFruit-- -- *
Rubus idaeusJuice-- -- *
Rumex crispusLeaf-- -- *
Rumex acetosaFruit-- -- *
Ruta graveolensPlant-- -- *
Salix albaBark-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sambucus nigraLeaf-- -- *
Sambucus canadensisFruit-- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- -- *
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Schinus molleLeaf-- -- *
Schinus terebinthifoliusPlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Senna occidentalisRoot-- -- *
Silybum marianumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Silybum marianumFruit-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumFlower-- -- *
Solidago giganteaFlower-- -- *
Solidago virgaureaLeaf-- -- *
Solidago giganteaLeaf-- -- *
Sophora japonicaPlant-- -- *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit-- -- *
Spartium junceumPlant-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf1.0 19.0 -0.35 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Tabebuia impetiginosaHeart Wood-- -- *
Tagetes minutaShoot-- -- *
Tagetes patulaPlant-- -- *
Tanacetum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Taraxacum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Terminalia ivorensisBark-- -- *
Terminalia catappaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia ivorensisStem Bark-- -- Iwu, M. M., Anyanwu, B. N. 1982. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Properties of Terminalia ivorensis. Fitoterapia 53: 25-34.
Terminalia chebulaFruit-- -- Polovyanov, G. G. 1974. Flavonoids from the Fruit of the Yellow Myrobalan Plum. Chem. Nat. Comp. 10 (5): 690-.
Teucrium montanumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium botrysPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scordiumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Theobroma cacaoLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thespesia populneaFlower-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thevetia peruvianaPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Tribulus terrestrisFlower-- -- *
Tridax procumbensFlower-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumFlower-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumPlant-- -- *
Triticum aestivumPlant-- -- *
Tussilago farfaraLeaf-- -- *
Uncaria catechuBulb-- -- *
Urginea maritimaBulb-- -- *
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit100.0 250.0 0.55 *
Vaccinium corymbosumPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisPlant-- -- *
Viburnum opulusLeaf-- -- *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling-- -- *
Viola tricolorFlower-- -- *
Viola odorataPlant-- -- *
Vitis viniferaFruit0.5 16.0 -0.72 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Withania somniferaLeaf-- -- *
Zea maysPollen Or Spore-- -- *
Zea maysPlant-- -- *
Zingiber officinalePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.