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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abies albaLeaf25.0 35.0 -0.37 *
Achillea millefoliumLeaf9.0 1185.0 0.58 *
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 4.0 -0.5 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Acinos suaveolens (Sibt. et Smith). G. Don fil. Growing in Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3:191-2.
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 50.0 -0.49 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aegle marmelosLeaf-- 1020.0 0.45 *
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Allium cepaFruit Juice-- -- Schmidt, N. E., et. al. 1996. Rapid Extraction Method of Quantitating the Lachrymatory Factor of Onion Using Gas Chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem., 44(9): 2690-2693.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant1.0 7.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Alpinia galangaRhizome-- -- *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- Wealth of India.
Amomum compactumSeed-- -- Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Anethum graveolensEssential Oil-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit336.0 3773.0 -0.08 *
Anethum graveolensRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Anethum graveolensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 21700.0 -0.46 *
Anethum graveolensLeaf30.0 4460.0 3.31 *
Anethum graveolensSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Anethum graveolensShoot-- -- *
Anethum graveolensSeed40.0 3775.0 0.25 *
Angelica archangelicaSeed800.0 5050.0 0.58 Wealth of India.
Angelica archangelicaRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Angelica archangelicaRoot40.0 980.0 1.73 *
Apium graveolensSeed20.0 930.0 -0.49 *
Apium graveolensFruit Essent. Oil2000.0 31000.0 1.12 *
Apium graveolensSeed Essent. Oil2000.0 31000.0 -0.1 *
Apium graveolensEt-- 17000.0 1.0 *
Apium graveolensStem Essent. Oil-- 17000.0 -1.0 *
Apium graveolensRoot Essent. Oil-- 31000.0 1.44 *
Apium graveolensLeaf Essent. Oil-- 4000.0 -0.72 *
Aralia cordataRoot-- 5.0 -0.59 *
Artemisia dracunculusEssential Oil-- 24700.0 -0.43 *
Artemisia capillarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Artemisia salsoloidesShoot-- 6500.0 4.65 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Artemisia herba-albaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia annuaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia annuaShoot10.0 400.0 -0.18 *
Boswellia sacraResin Essent. Oil-- 0.5 Abdel Wahab, S. M., Aboutabl, E. A., El-Zalabani, S. M., Fouad, H. A., De Pooter, H. L., El-Fallaha, B. 1987. The Essential Oil of Olibanum. Plant Med. 53 (4): 382-384.
Boswellia serrataResin, Exudate, Sap-- 22400.0 -1.0 Sabinsa: A series of well documented proprietary PR booklets, e.g.Sabinsa Corps. 1998. Bronchial Asthma - Its etiology and control with traditional herbal extracts. Sabinsa Corporation. Piscataway, NJ. 49 pp.
Boswellia sacraResin, Exudate, Sap-- 35300.0 1.0 Chiavari, G., Gtalletti, G. C., Piccaglia, R., Mohamud, M. A. 1991. Differentiation Between Resins Boswellia carterii and Boswellia frereana (Frankincense) of Somali Origin. J. Essent. Oil Res. 3 (3):185-186.
Boswellia sacraEssential Oil3925.0 87000.0 0.08 *
Boswellia serrataEssential Oil-- 140000.0 0.52 *
Calamintha nepetaLeaf-- 1.0 -0.4 Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Calamintha nepetaShoot-- 9.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Calamintha nepetaPlant-- 65.0 -0.4 J. Ethnopharmacology, 39: 167.
Callicarpa americanaLeaf-- 7.0 -0.39 *
Canarium indicumEssential Oil1500.0 3750.0 -0.6 *
Capsicum annuumFruit-- -- *
Carthamus tinctoriusBud-- 0.01 *
Carthamus tinctoriusLeaf-- 0.03 -0.4 *
Carum carviSeed0.1 1320.0 -0.39 *
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesLeaf365.0 4400.0 3.26 *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumPlant3.0 14.0 -0.42 Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum partheniumShoot-- 9.0 -0.49 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Cinnamomum verumBark39.0 448.0 *
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf55.0 140.0 -0.28 *
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- 5.0 -0.4 *
Cinnamomum verumBark Essent. Oil-- 5500.0 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumRoot Bark-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf16.0 1120.0 0.53 *
Citrullus colocynthisPetiole-- -- *
Citrus limonPericarp Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- -- *
Citrus limonEssential Oil12.0 31.0 -0.63 *
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil4100.0 20000.0 -0.48 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus paradisiLeaf-- 385.0 -0.08 *
Citrus sinensisFruit3590.0 4070.0 -0.04 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf100.0 270.0 -0.18 *
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus reticulataLeaf Essent. Oil-- 162900.0 1.64 *
Citrus limonPetiole-- 7.5 *
Citrus reticulataFruit-- 0.1 -0.58 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit50.0 1160.0 -0.43 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cleonia lusitanicaLeaf2.0 3.0 -0.4 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Cnicus benedictusEssential Oil-- -- Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Cnicus benedictusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 24600.0 -0.41 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatusRoot Essent. Oil-- 2000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatusStem Essent. Oil-- 24600.0 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil-- 900.0 -1.55 *
Coriandrum sativumEssential Oil-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit74.0 728.0 -0.48 *
Coridothymus capitatusShoot-- 1275.0 0.51 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style-- -- *
Croton eluteriaBark-- -- *
Croton lechleriPlant-- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cuminum cyminumFruit810.0 12639.0 1.09 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed810.0 12639.0 2.57 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed Essent. Oil-- 57400.0 1.17 *
Cunila origanoidesShoot-- 3388.0 2.18 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Curcuma longaLeaf-- 310.0 -0.14 *
Curcuma longaRhizome210.0 5184.0 2.0 *
Cymbopogon nardusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Daucus carotaSeed10.0 160.0 -0.69 *
Daucus carotaRoot-- 12.0 -0.57 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 -1.0 *
Elettaria cardamomumRoot Essent. Oil-- 7000.0 -0.58 *
Elettaria cardamomumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit130.0 28000.0 3.13 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Elsholtzia nipponicaPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 3.6 -0.4 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 0.5 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- 4.2 -0.4 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia pilosaShoot-- 0.6 -0.5 *
Elytrigia repensRhizome-- 7.0 -0.51 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Elytrigia repensPlant-- 5.0 -0.42 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Eryngium foetidumPlant4.5 22.5 -0.41 *
Eucalyptus erythrandraLeaf-- 23.0 -0.38 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus salignaShoot-- 800.0 0.13 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbataShoot-- 1180.0 0.43 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyiShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus angulosaLeaf-- 7.5 -0.39 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus ceratocorysLeaf-- 90.0 -0.33 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus porosaLeaf-- 220.0 -0.22 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosaLeaf-- 125.0 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf Essent. Oil3400.0 146000.0 1.39 *
Eucalyptus behrianaLeaf-- 575.0 0.08 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus sparsaLeaf-- 115.0 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus melanophloiaLeaf-- 21.0 -0.38 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus occidentalisShoot-- 1955.0 1.05 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf10.0 180.0 -0.25 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus maideniShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tetrapteraLeaf-- 630.0 0.12 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus sideroxylonShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoidesShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dolichorhynchaLeaf-- 160.0 -0.27 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus punctataShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyxShoot-- 275.0 -0.28 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus grandisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 161000.0 1.61 *
Eucalyptus astringensShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albensShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus lansdowneanaLeaf-- 185.0 -0.25 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus viridisLeaf-- 2.0 -0.4 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus ochrophloiaLeaf-- 42.0 -0.37 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus cupreaLeaf-- 32.0 -0.37 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus populneaLeaf-- 22.0 -0.38 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus desquamataLeaf-- 1015.0 0.44 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus polyanthemosShoot-- 630.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculataShoot-- 15.0 -0.49 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornisShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bridgesianaLeaf-- 580.0 0.08 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus bridgesiana Growing in India. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 449-450.
Eucalyptus siderophloiaShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus nova-anglicaLeaf140.0 240.0 -0.2 Brophy, J. L., Lassak, E. V., & Boland, D. J. 1992. The Leaf Essential Oils of Eucalyptus nova-anglica. Deane & Maiden. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 29-32.
Eucalyptus forrestianaLeaf-- 195.0 -0.24 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus bosistoanaShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolorShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodoraShoot-- 4000.0 2.67 *
Eucalyptus citriodoraLeaf Essent. Oil1000.0 5800.0 -0.69 *
Eucalyptus odorataLeaf-- 1095.0 0.51 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulusEssential Oil-- 5000.0 -0.59 *
Eucalyptus intertextaLeaf-- 41.0 -0.37 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus largisparsaLeaf-- 39.0 -0.37 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus leucoxylonLeaf-- 22.0 -0.38 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus oviformisShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulusLeaf-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus melliodoraShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus stoateiLeaf-- 225.0 -0.21 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus brassianaLeaf-- 90.0 -0.33 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus incrassataLeaf-- 245.0 -0.2 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Ficus caricaLeaf-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Foeniculum vulgareEssential Oil1000.0 10000.0 -0.55 Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgareFruit20.0 480.0 -0.52 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed20.0 480.0 -0.61 *
Foeniculum vulgareRoot Essent. Oil-- 30000.0 1.35 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ginkgo bilobaEssential Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Ginkgo bilobaWood-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- *
Hedeoma hispidaPlant-- 10.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedychium flavumShoot-- 10.0 -0.49 *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Houttuynia cordataShoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Houttuynia cordataEssential Oil-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hypericum perforatumPlant0.5 9.0 -0.42 *
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 90.0 -0.43 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolensShoot-- 90.0 -0.43 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- -- Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalisEssential Oil-- -- *
Hyssopus officinalisPlant6.0 180.0 -0.37 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalisShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Illicium verumFruit1.0 100.0 -0.57 *
Juniperus communisFruit48.0 480.0 -0.52 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juniperus communisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Lantana camaraLeaf-- -- *
Lantana camaraShoot-- 7.0 -0.5 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 198300.0 2.17 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf62.0 540.0 0.05 *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant32.0 69.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant26.0 98.0 -0.39 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x hybridaShoot7.0 13.0 -0.49 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Leonotis leonurusSe-- 22.0 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Lepechinia calycinaPlant-- 35.0 -0.41 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinaleRoot-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lindera benzoinFruit90.0 135.0 -0.56 *
Lindera benzoinTwig-- 4.0 *
Lippia javanicaEssential Oil-- -- *
Litsea glaucescensShoot30.0 40.0 -0.47 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Magnolia denudataFlower-- -- *
Magnolia denudataTwig-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBulb-- -- *
Magnolia denudataLeaf-- -- *
Magnolia denudataBark-- -- *
Marrubium vulgarePlant-- -- *
Marrubium vulgareEssential Oil-- -- *
Melaleuca alternifoliaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Melaleuca alternifoliaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 21000.0 -0.47 *
Melaleuca linariifoliaLeaf150.0 200.0 -0.23 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca alternifoliaRoot Essent. Oil-- 8430.0 -0.46 *
Melaleuca cajuputiLeaf-- 420.0 -0.05 *
Melaleuca alternifoliaLeaf300.0 2855.0 1.97 *
Melaleuca alternifoliaEssential Oil2000.0 49600.0 -0.22 *
Mentha spicataLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensLeaf9.0 29.0 -0.38 *
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil300.0 30500.0 -0.38 *
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 2.0 -0.5 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha x rotundifoliaShoot14.0 230.0 -0.32 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant3.0 610.0 -0.26 *
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 1.0 -0.5 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 2.0 -0.5 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha spicataEssential Oil-- 2000.0 -0.62 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf2.5 30.0 -0.38 *
Mentha longifoliaShoot1.0 23.0 -0.48 *
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 2.0 -0.5 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 1.0 -0.5 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 2.0 -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria teneriffaeLeaf-- 50.0 -0.36 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- 0.1 -0.5 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Micromeria croaticaLeaf-- 15.0 -0.39 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosaShoot-- 2.0 -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- -- -0.4 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria congestaLeaf1.0 5.0 -0.4 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 3.0 -0.5 *
Micromeria fruticosaLeaf-- 150.0 -0.28 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria thymifoliaLeaf-- -- -0.4 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria dalmaticaLeaf-- 13.0 -0.39 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria variaShoot-- 3.0 -0.5 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Momordica charantiaSeed Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Monarda didymaPlant120.0 1850.0 0.06 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda clinopodiaPlant-- 218.0 -0.36 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda mediaPlant14.0 528.0 -0.28 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda citriodoraLeaf-- 1600.0 0.93 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda lindheimeriPlant-- 1315.0 -0.08 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaLeaf140.0 270.0 -0.18 *
Monarda russelianaPlant-- 923.0 -0.18 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda citriodoraPlant859.0 1038.0 -0.15 *
Monarda citriodoraFlower-- 420.0 1.03 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda fistulosaPlant3.0 15810.0 3.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaFlower-- 405.0 0.95 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Monarda punctataPlant65.0 3384.0 0.46 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 23.0 -0.38 *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- *
Myristica fragransLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Myristica fragransSeed120.0 960.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myristica fragransSeed Essent. Oil6000.0 43000.0 0.48 *
Myristica fragransEssential Oil5000.0 8000.0 -0.57 *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Myrtus communisPlant30.0 106.0 -0.39 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 155.0 -0.38 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosaShoot-- 155.0 -0.38 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Ocimum basilicumTissue Culture-- -- *
Ocimum basilicumPlant1.0 16.0 -0.42 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 2400.0 -0.61 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf Essent. Oil-- 300.0 -0.77 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 300.0 -1.4 *
Ocimum gratissimumPlant160.0 1945.0 0.09 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 1.0 -0.42 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 3135.0 1.98 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum onitesShoot-- 1160.0 0.42 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum vulgarePlant3.0 3237.0 0.42 *
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 3345.0 2.15 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 2600.0 0.26 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 3135.0 1.98 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum majoranaEssential Oil-- 47000.0 -0.25 *
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 3345.0 2.15 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum onitesPlant-- 227.0 -0.36 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum minutiflorumShoot760.0 2290.0 1.31 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum vulgareShoot Essent. Oil23500.0 87600.0 0.51 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 1.0 -0.42 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgareShoot-- 3420.0 2.21 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum syriacumShoot-- 1880.0 0.99 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum majoranaLeaf Essent. Oil-- 20000.0 -0.48 *
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 5150.0 3.58 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum onitesShoot-- 1160.0 0.42 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majoranaPlant21.0 210.0 -0.37 *
Origanum sipyleumShoot-- 870.0 0.19 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum vulgareEssential Oil-- 323700.0 2.04 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 3.0 -0.42 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Pastinaca sativaRoot-- -- *
Pelargonium graveolensEssential Oil1.0 2.0 -0.63 *
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 1.4 -0.5 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Perilla frutescensShoot Essent. Oil-- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Petroselinum crispumFruit Essent. Oil-- 28000.0 0.87 *
Petroselinum crispumSeed-- 34.0 -0.73 *
Petroselinum crispumLeaf-- 1.44 -0.4 *
Peumus boldusLeaf1380.0 8580.0 6.73 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf16.0 750.0 0.22 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf-- 78.0 -0.34 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit-- 87.0 -0.57 *
Pinus palustrisResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Pinus wallicianaResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestrisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 1600.0 -0.75 *
Pinus sylvestrisResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit-- 150.0 -0.56 *
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper betelLeaf25.0 1050.0 0.47 *
Piper cubebaFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper nigrumSeed Essent. Oil-- -- *
Porophyllum ruderalePlant40.0 65.0 -0.4 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Prunus armeniacaLeaf-- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoidesRoot Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 -0.75 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Pycnanthemum muticumShoot-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum clinopodioidesShoot63.0 66.0 -0.45 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianumShoot6.0 290.0 -0.27 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifoliumShoot1.0 140.0 -0.39 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum loomisiiShoot33.0 84.0 -0.43 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum californicumShoot-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum verticillatumShoot-- 42.0 -0.47 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoidesShoot39.0 58.0 -0.46 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum incanumShoot22.0 38.0 -0.47 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum beadleiShoot-- 21.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum torreyiShoot-- 30.0 -0.48 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 80.0 -0.33 *
Rheum palmatumRhizome-- 0.5 -0.52 *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot190.0 480.0 -0.12 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant25.0 950.0 -0.17 *
Rosmarinus tomentosusShoot55.0 210.0 -0.33 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf-- 25.0 -0.38 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil-- 19000.0 -0.5 *
Rosmarinus eriocalyxShoot160.0 305.0 -0.26 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot100.0 465.0 -0.13 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus x mendizabaliiShoot43.0 60.0 -0.45 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot Essent. Oil-- 105000.0 0.89 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf-- 25.0 -0.38 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalisEssential Oil-- 50000.0 -0.22 *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 6.0 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceusShoot60.0 275.0 -0.28 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalisResin, Exudate, Sap-- -- *
Rosmarinus eriocalyxShoot295.0 645.0 0.01 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Salvia officinalisLeaf Essent. Oil7000.0 17700.0 -0.52 *
Salvia canariensisLeaf-- 42.0 -0.37 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Salvia officinalisEssential Oil3100.0 5400.0 -0.59 *
Salvia sclareaPlant1.0 27.0 -0.41 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Salvia gilliesiiShoot-- 52.0 -0.46 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Salvia officinalisShoot15.0 495.0 -0.11 *
Salvia officinalisEt-- 11000.0 -1.0 *
Salvia dorisianaShoot9.6 10.6 -0.49 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Sassafras albidumLeaf-- -- -0.4 *
Satureja parvifoliaShoot-- -- -0.5 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja cilicicaShoot-- 1150.0 0.41 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Satureja obovataShoot50.0 1235.0 0.48 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 990.0 0.42 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja montanaPlant45.0 6210.0 1.2 *
Satureja montanaEssential Oil163700.0 273000.0 1.62 *
Satureja thymbraShoot-- 5070.0 3.52 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Satureja odoraShoot-- 50.0 -0.46 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 100.0 -0.32 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 100.0 -0.32 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja hortensisPlant200.0 3060.0 0.38 *
Satureja subspicataPlant-- 50.0 -0.41 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja cuneifoliaShoot-- 2980.0 1.86 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 1230.0 0.62 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja douglasiiPlant-- 26.0 -0.41 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Saussurea lappaRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf3.0 5.0 -0.4 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis athoaShoot-- 2.0 -0.5 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower35.0 75.0 -0.84 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis pauliShoot-- 3.0 -0.5 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Sideritis germanicolpitanaPlant-- 2.0 -0.42 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Stachys germanicaPlant-- 13.0 -0.42 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- 20.0 -1.14 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 8.0 -0.39 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Tagetes minutaPlant-- -- *
Tagetes minutaFlower Essent. Oil-- 100.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumEssential Oil-- 31000.0 -0.38 *
Tanacetum partheniumFruit Essent. Oil-- 5000.0 -1.0 *
Tanacetum partheniumShoot-- 9.0 -0.49 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- -- -0.4 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 170.0 -0.26 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium salviastrumShoot-- 0.25 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium scorodoniaShoot-- 0.06 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 0.78 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium gnaphalodesShoot-- -- -0.5 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium asiaticumShoot-- 0.61 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium pseudoscorodoniaShoot-- 0.08 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium poliumShoot3.0 19.0 -0.49 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium arduiniShoot-- 4.0 -0.5 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- -- -0.4 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- -- -0.4 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium arduiniShoot-- 16.0 -0.49 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 1.36 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Thymus riatarumShoot-- 2100.0 1.16 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 10.0 -0.42 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus vulgarisPlant146.0 20800.0 4.99 *
Thymus mastichinaPlant130.0 340.0 -0.33 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 825.0 0.15 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 3.0 -0.5 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus cilicicusShoot-- 170.0 -0.37 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 65.0 -0.45 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus vulgarisEssential Oil78300.0 441300.0 3.01 *
Thymus serpyllumPlant237.0 3285.0 0.43 *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- 45.0 -0.47 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 825.0 0.15 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 40.0 -0.47 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus saturejoidesShoot-- 460.0 -0.14 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus broussonettiiShoot-- 1350.0 0.57 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 50.0 -0.46 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus orospedanusPlant-- 3939.0 0.61 J. Nat. Prod.
Thymus zygisShoot940.0 4220.0 2.84 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Thymus capitatusPlant10.0 550.0 -0.28 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 3.0 -0.5 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Trachyspermum ammiFruit6240.0 9512.0 0.68 *
Trichostemma dichotomumShoot-- 0.3 -0.5 Tucker, A.O. and Maciarello, M.J. 1990. The Essential Oil of Trichostemma dichotomum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 2: 149-150.
Turnera diffusaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Umbellularia californicaPlant100.0 400.0 -0.32 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot Essent. Oil-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Vetiveria zizanioidesRoot-- 15.0 -0.57 *
Vitex agnus-castusFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castusFlower-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 14400.0 -0.56 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castusLeaf-- 10.0 -0.39 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- 26000.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 90.0 -0.47 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.