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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit8.0 103.0 -0.3 *
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Aconitum napellusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamusPlant-- -- *
Aframomum meleguetaFruit-- -- Wealth of India.
Agave americanaPlant-- -- *
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium cepaLeaf-- -- Gad, S. S., Esmat El-Zalaki, M., Hohamed, M. S., Mohasseb, S. Z. 1982. Oxalate Content of Some Leafy Vegetables and Dry Legumes Consumed Widely in Egypt. Food Chem., 8(3): 169-177. (Coll. Agric. Alexandria Univ. Ale.)
Allium schoenoprasumPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Allium cepaBulb-- 10.0 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaPlant-- -- *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed-- 3184.0 -0.03 *
Ananas comosusFruit50.0 58.0 -0.3 *
Angelica archangelicaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Apium graveolensPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- *
Avena sativaPlant-- 400.0 -0.53 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Averrhoa carambolaFruit50000.0 95800.0 4.98 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Benincasa hispidaFruit-- 34.0 -0.3 *
Beta vulgarisRoot-- 404.0 -0.4 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Brassica junceaLeaf-- 1287.0 -0.44 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Plant-- 68.0 -0.54 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf30.0 350.0 -0.47 *
Byrsonima crassifoliaBark-- 27300.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Camellia sinensisLeaf2192.0 10000.0 -0.18 *
Capparis spinosaPlant-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit257.0 1171.0 -0.24 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Chenopodium albumPlant140000.0 300000.0 2.0 *
Cicer arietinumSeed-- 24.0 -0.67 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- *
Citrus reticulataFruit-- -- *
Citrus paradisiPlant-- -- *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- -- *
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 87.0 -0.3 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Coffea arabicaFruit-- 154.0 -0.3 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Colocasia esculentaRoot-- 1334.0 0.19 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- 120.0 -0.3 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- 50.0 -0.47 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus rhipidophyllaBark-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Crataegus laevigataBark-- -- *
Cucurbita pepoJuice-- 400.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Daucus carotaRoot-- 56.0 -0.63 *
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eucalyptus citriodoraBark-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumLeaf-- 111000.0 2.78 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaFruit Juice-- -- Shiraishi, S. C., Kawakami, K., Widodo, S. E., Shiraishi, M., Kitazaki, M. 1996. Organic acid profiles in the juice of fig fruits. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, 41(1-2): 29-33.
Ficus caricaFruit-- -- *
Glycine maxRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycine maxSeed-- 770.0 -0.52 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraPlant-- -- *
Haematoxylum campechianumWood-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea batatasRoot-- 1000.0 -0.02 *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnataPlant-- -- Tramil
Kalanchoe daegrimontianaPlant-- -- *
Lactuca virosaLatex Exudate-- 10000.0 *
Lactuca scariolaLatex Exudate-- -- *
Lactuca sativaLeaf110.0 136.0 -0.47 *
Ledum palustrePlant-- -- *
Lens culinarisSeed-- 212.0 -0.63 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Lupinus albusSeed-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit36.0 263.0 -0.29 *
Malus domesticaPlant-- -- *
Mangifera indicaFruit-- 300.0 -0.29 *
Manihot esculentaRoot-- 171.0 -0.55 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Mentha spicataLeaf-- 38.0 -0.48 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Momordica charantiaFruit-- 5.0 -0.31 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- 1010.0 -0.45 *
Moringa oleiferaFruit-- 1010.0 -0.25 *
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 1320.0 -0.44 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Murraya spFruit22.0 5240.0 -0.02 *
Musa x paradisiacaLeaf-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Musa x paradisiacaFruit22.0 5240.0 -0.02 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit-- -- *
Oryza sativaSeed-- 46.0 -0.67 *
Papaver somniferumSeed-- 16200.0 2.63 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Parthenocissus quinquefoliaFruit-- 20000.0 0.8 *
Pastinaca sativaRoot-- 205.0 -0.53 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit-- 312.0 -0.29 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Phoenix dactyliferaSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Physalis ixocarpaFruit109.0 536.0 -0.28 *
Piper betelLeaf-- -- *
Piper methysticumRoot-- -- Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
Piper nigrumFruit4000.0 34000.0 1.57 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pisum sativumFruit-- 60.0 -0.3 *
Plantago psylliumSeed-- -- *
Plectranthus amboinicusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Polygonum hydropiperoidesPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant1679.0 16790.0 -0.39 *
Prunus dulcisSeed-- 4073.0 0.16 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Prunus persicaPlant-- 10.0 -0.54 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus persicaHh-- 10.0 *
Psidium guajavaFruit-- 140.0 -0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatumFruit-- 140.0 -0.3 *
Raphanus sativusRoot-- 92.0 -0.6 *
Rheum officinaleRhizome-- -- *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt4400.0 13360.0 *
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf3000.0 11000.0 -0.15 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- -- *
Ribes rubrumFruit-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- 200.0 -0.3 *
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Rumex acetosellaPlant-- -- *
Rumex acetosaLeaf-- 3000.0 -0.39 *
Rumex crispusLeaf5170.0 6970.0 -0.27 *
Rumex crispusRoot-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFruit-- 410.0 -0.28 *
Sechium eduleFruit-- 340.0 -0.29 *
Sesamum indicumSeed-- -- *
Sinapis albaSeed-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumTuber-- 150.0 *
Solanum melongenaFruit-- 291.0 -0.29 *
Sophora pachycarpaLeaf-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf5000.0 93900.0 2.28 *
Stellaria mediaShoot2950.0 4330.0 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit-- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Tamarindus indicaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indicaLeaf1000.0 1960.0 -0.42 *
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf-- 1700.0 -0.43 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Terminalia catappaBark-- -- Bharadwaj, K., Chandra, V. 1983. Comparative Incidence of Calcium Oxalate as a Source of Oxalic Acid in Barks of Seven Species of Terminalia. Biol. Mem. 8 1/2: 54-62.
Terminalia chebulaBark-- -- Bharadwaj, K., Chandra, V. 1983. Comparative Incidence of Calcium Oxalate as a Source of Oxalic Acid in Barks of Seven Species of Terminalia. Biol. Mem. 8 1/2: 54-62.
Terminalia arjunaBark-- -- Bharadwaj, K., Chandra, V. 1983. Comparative Incidence of Calcium Oxalate as a Source of Oxalic Acid in Barks of Seven Species of Terminalia. Biol. Mem. 8 1/2: 54-62.
Terminalia belliricaBark-- -- Bharadwaj, K., Chandra, V. 1983. Comparative Incidence of Calcium Oxalate as a Source of Oxalic Acid in Barks of Seven Species of Terminalia. Biol. Mem. 8 1/2: 54-62.
Terminalia belliricaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Theobroma cacaoSeed1520.0 5000.0 0.34 *
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit10.0 340.0 -0.29 *
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Triticum aestivumFruit-- 111.0 -0.3 *
Tropaeolum majusShoot-- -- *
Tulipa gesnerianaBulb-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Vicia fabaFruit10.0 70.0 -0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna mungoSeed-- 278.0 -0.62 *
Vitis viniferaFruit-- 34.0 -0.3 *
Zea maysFruit-- 99.0 -0.3 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Zingiber officinaleRoot-- 5000.0 2.54 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 5000.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.