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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Aloysia citrodoraPlant13.0 140.0 1.88 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Amomum xanthioidesSeed-- -- *
Aralia cordataRoot-- 0.75 *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- 238.0 0.31 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Camellia sinensisShoot800.0 1200.0 3.24 *
Centella asiaticaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Chamaemelum nobilePlant-- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumPlant10.0 42.0 -0.19 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum camphoraEssential Oil-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus sinensisFlower-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Coriandrum sativumFruit14.0 17.0 -0.72 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant9.0 36.0 -0.32 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Elettaria cardamomumFruit448.0 1280.0 -0.28 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Elettaria cardamomumSeed Essent. Oil-- 12000.0 *
Eucalyptus nova-anglicaLeaf-- -- -0.72 Brophy, J. L., Lassak, E. V., & Boland, D. J. 1992. The Leaf Essential Oils of Eucalyptus nova-anglica. Deane & Maiden. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 29-32.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Illicium verumFruit-- 50.0 -0.71 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Jasminum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Juniperus communisLeaf-- -- *
Lonicera japonicaFlower0.001 0.476 -1.25 Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Melaleuca viridifloraLeaf-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca leucadendraEssential Oil-- -- *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf0.05 0.5 -0.72 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 2.0 -0.4 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 4.0 -0.4 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- -- Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 0.1 -0.41 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquaticaShoot-- 3.0 -0.4 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Micromeria teneriffaeLeaf-- 1090.0 2.09 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 740.0 1.18 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- 8.0 -0.39 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Momordica charantiaSeed Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Murraya koenigiiLeaf-- 2.0 -0.72 *
Myroxylon balsamumGum-- -- *
Myroxylon balsamumPlant-- -- *
Myrtus communisShoot-- 5.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant-- 5.0 -0.97 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 4700.0 *
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 3.0 -1.01 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Piper cubebaFruit Essent. Oil-- 36000.0 *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- *
Piper nigrumFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Piper cubebaFruit3500.0 7000.0 1.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromaticaLeaf-- 20.0 -0.67 *
Salvia sclareaPlant-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Santalum acuminatumWood-- -- *
Sideritis scardicaShoot-- 145.0 0.03 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Sideritis athoaShoot-- 1.0 -0.41 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf15.0 90.0 -0.49 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower10.0 205.0 0.4 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Stevia rebaudianaFlower-- 330.0 1.4 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf85.0 300.0 0.05 *
Telosma cordataFlower-- 87.0 -0.55 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Teucrium arduiniShoot-- 7.0 -0.39 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Teucrium arduiniShoot-- 7.0 -0.39 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- 80.0 0.61 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Zea maysLeaf-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleEssential Oil-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- 60.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.