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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Aeolanthus myrianthaFlower-- -- Wealth of India.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant52.0 364.0 -0.21 *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot670.0 6700.0 3.46 *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 670000.0 1.0 *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Bursera delpechianaWood-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Centella asiaticaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- 120.0 0.12 Mallavarupu, G. R. et al. 1995. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flav. & Fragr. J., 10: 239-242.
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf22.0 1540.0 5.04 *
Citrus limonPericarp Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus aurantiumLeaf100.0 150.0 0.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus limonPetiole-- 41.0 *
Citrus limonPericarp-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus reticulataFruit0.4 0.8 -0.56 *
Citrus sinensisFruit0.7 1.0 -0.55 *
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil8000.0 76000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 3.0 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil-- 6150.0 1.0 *
Coriandrum sativumEssential Oil-- -- *
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant2059.0 6189.0 3.55 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant308.0 539.0 -0.09 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Elettaria cardamomumFruit10.0 30.0 1.73 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Elettaria cardamomumSeed Essent. Oil-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Elsholtzia pilosaShoot-- 1.0 -0.32 *
Elsholtzia eriostachyaShoot-- 11.0 -0.31 Pant, A.K., Dev, V., Parihar, R., Mathela,C.S., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky, O. and Bestmann, H.J. 1992. The Essential Oil from Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 547-549.
Eucalyptus melanophloiaLeaf-- 0.8 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus odorataLeaf-- 4.4 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus ochrophloiaLeaf-- 0.5 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus populneaLeaf-- 5.0 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus cupreaLeaf-- 6.4 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus leucoxylonLeaf-- 5.5 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus viridisLeaf-- 0.5 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus porosaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.26 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus intertextaLeaf-- 5.5 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus largisparsaLeaf-- 4.6 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosaLeaf-- 1.3 -0.29 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus desquamataLeaf-- 15.0 -0.25 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus lansdowneanaLeaf-- 9.0 -0.27 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus behrianaLeaf-- 85.0 -0.0 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus sparsaLeaf-- 25.0 -0.21 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant225.0 1000.0 0.2 *
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hypericum perforatumPlant1.0 18.0 -0.43 *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf0.8 9.0 -0.27 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalisFlower0.8 8.0 -1.14 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Jasminum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant1.0 15.0 -0.43 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mangifera indicaFlower-- -- *
Melaleuca alternifoliaLeaf-- 0.001 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot1.0 24.0 -0.3 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Mentha pulegiumPlant10.0 20.0 -0.43 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 1000.0 -0.82 *
Mentha x piperitaTissue Culture-- -- *
Monarda fistulosaPlant15.0 310.0 -0.24 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myristica fragransEssential Oil-- -- *
Myrtus communisPlant-- -- *
Nepeta catariaEssential Oil-- 276000.0 1.41 *
Nepeta catariaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Ocimum basilicumPlant2.5 300.0 -0.25 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 700.0 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 30000.0 -0.59 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 0.6 -0.44 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 0.9 -0.44 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Pelargonium roseumShoot-- 216.0 -0.2 *
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 5.0 -0.32 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Peumus boldusLeaf-- 12.0 -0.26 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf-- 110.0 0.08 *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Robinia pseudoacaciaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa gallicaFlower15.0 36.0 -0.85 *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- -- -0.32 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Salvia sclareaPlant6.0 280.0 -0.26 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Sambucus nigraFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Satureja montanaPlant1.0 270.0 -0.27 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sideritis scardicaShoot-- 65.0 -0.28 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf55.0 80.0 -0.02 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower160.0 220.0 1.04 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Skimmia arborescensLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indicaFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Telosma cordataFlower-- 211.0 0.95 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- -- -0.3 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- -- -0.3 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- 80.0 -0.02 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 50.0 -0.13 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 16.0 -0.31 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 140.0 -0.24 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 16.0 -0.31 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.32 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 280.0 -0.26 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 140.0 -0.24 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit0.02 0.08 -0.62 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.002 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.