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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Aeolanthus myrianthaFlower-- -- Wealth of India.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Aloysia citrodoraPlant52.0 364.0 -0.21 *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 670000.0 1.0 *
Artemisia dracunculusShoot670.0 6700.0 3.46 *
Bursera delpechianaWood-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Cananga odorataFlower-- -- *
Centella asiaticaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cinnamomum verumStem Bark-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- 120.0 0.12 Mallavarupu, G. R. et al. 1995. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flav. & Fragr. J., 10: 239-242.
Cinnamomum verumLeaf Essent. Oil-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf-- -- *
Cistus ladaniferusLeaf22.0 1540.0 5.04 *
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus limonPericarp-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limonLeaf Essent. Oil8000.0 76000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensisFruit0.7 1.0 -0.55 *
Citrus aurantiumLeaf100.0 150.0 0.22 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus paradisiPericarp-- 3.0 *
Citrus limonPericarp Essent. Oil-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus reticulataFruit0.4 0.8 -0.56 *
Citrus limonPetiole-- 41.0 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coriandrum sativumEssential Oil-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumSeed Essent. Oil-- 6150.0 1.0 *
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant308.0 539.0 -0.09 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cymbopogon parkeriPlant2059.0 6189.0 3.55 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Elettaria cardamomumSeed Essent. Oil-- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit10.0 30.0 1.73 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Elsholtzia eriostachyaShoot-- 11.0 -0.31 Pant, A.K., Dev, V., Parihar, R., Mathela,C.S., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky, O. and Bestmann, H.J. 1992. The Essential Oil from Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 547-549.
Elsholtzia pilosaShoot-- 1.0 -0.32 *
Eucalyptus leucoxylonLeaf-- 5.5 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus viridisLeaf-- 0.5 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus porosaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.26 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus intertextaLeaf-- 5.5 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus largisparsaLeaf-- 4.6 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosaLeaf-- 1.3 -0.29 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus desquamataLeaf-- 15.0 -0.25 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus lansdowneanaLeaf-- 9.0 -0.27 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus behrianaLeaf-- 85.0 -0.0 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus sparsaLeaf-- 25.0 -0.21 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus populneaLeaf-- 5.0 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus melanophloiaLeaf-- 0.8 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus odorataLeaf-- 4.4 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus ochrophloiaLeaf-- 0.5 -0.3 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus cupreaLeaf-- 6.4 -0.28 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Helichrysum angustifoliumPlant225.0 1000.0 0.2 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Humulus lupulusEssential Oil-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant1.0 18.0 -0.43 *
Hyssopus officinalisLeaf0.8 9.0 -0.27 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalisFlower0.8 8.0 -1.14 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Jasminum officinaleFlower-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit Essent. Oil-- -- *
Juniperus communisFruit-- -- *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant1.0 15.0 -0.43 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermediaPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mangifera indicaFlower-- -- *
Melaleuca alternifoliaLeaf-- 0.001 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Melissa officinalisShoot1.0 24.0 -0.3 Deutsche Apot. Ziit. 129(4):155-163. W. Schulze et al. Die Melisse.
Mentha x piperitaTissue Culture-- -- *
Mentha pulegiumEssential Oil-- 1000.0 -0.82 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant10.0 20.0 -0.43 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Monarda fistulosaPlant15.0 310.0 -0.24 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myristica fragransEssential Oil-- -- *
Myrtus communisPlant-- -- *
Nepeta catariaPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Nepeta catariaEssential Oil-- 276000.0 1.41 *
Ocimum basilicumShoot Essent. Oil-- 700.0 *
Ocimum tenuiflorumLeaf-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum basilicumEssential Oil-- 30000.0 -0.59 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant2.5 300.0 -0.25 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 0.9 -0.44 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 0.6 -0.44 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Pelargonium citrosumShoot-- 5.0 -0.32 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium roseumShoot-- 216.0 -0.2 *
Peumus boldusLeaf-- 12.0 -0.26 *
Pimenta racemosaLeaf-- 110.0 0.08 *
Polianthes tuberosaFlower-- -- *
Robinia pseudoacaciaFlower-- -- *
Rosa damascenaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaEssential Oil-- -- *
Rosa gallicaFlower15.0 36.0 -0.85 *
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- -- -0.32 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Salvia sclareaPlant6.0 280.0 -0.26 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Sambucus nigraFlower Essent. Oil-- -- *
Satureja hortensisPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja montanaPlant1.0 270.0 -0.27 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Sideritis mugronensisLeaf55.0 80.0 -0.02 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis mugronensisFlower160.0 220.0 1.04 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis scardicaShoot-- 65.0 -0.28 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Skimmia arborescensLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indicaFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Telosma cordataFlower-- 211.0 0.95 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Teucrium divaricatumLeaf-- -- -0.3 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium micropodioidesLeaf-- 80.0 -0.02 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium cypriumLeaf-- 50.0 -0.13 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium kotschyanumLeaf-- -- -0.3 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 16.0 -0.31 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- -- -0.32 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- 280.0 -0.26 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 140.0 -0.24 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus funkiiShoot-- 16.0 -0.31 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus longicaulisShoot-- 140.0 -0.24 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit0.02 0.08 -0.62 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit Juice-- 0.002 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome Essent. Oil-- -- *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.