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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit210.0 2100.0 1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaSeed175.0 200.0 -1.06 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf700.0 3860.0 0.64 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.1 9900.0 1.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb100.0 1090.0 -1.0 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf300.0 3850.0 0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf360.0 4331.0 1.03 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed2740.0 2787.0 -0.39 *
Ananas comosusFruit110.0 815.0 -0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anastatica hierochunticaPlant-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit1430.0 1549.0 0.73 *
Anethum graveolensSeed1430.0 1549.0 -0.71 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Annona reticulataFruit40.0 140.0 -1.01 *
Annona muricataFruit70.0 370.0 -0.72 *
Annona squamosaFruit70.0 260.0 -0.86 *
Apium graveolensPt50.0 1120.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed2630.0 3430.0 -0.23 *
Arctium lappaRoot90.0 450.0 -1.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilisSeed960.0 2195.0 -0.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilisFruit100.0 340.0 -0.76 *
Asimina trilobaFruit70.0 836.0 -0.15 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot290.0 3742.0 -1.0 *
Avena sativaPlant-- 2000.0 0.01 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaSeed1000.0 4000.0 -0.08 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit110.0 1210.0 0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf190.0 2755.0 -0.28 *
Benincasa hispidaFruit30.0 770.0 -0.23 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed10140.0 10346.0 1.56 *
Beta vulgarisRoot170.0 1341.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed1280.0 1660.0 -0.69 *
Brassica rapaLeaf90.0 1923.0 -0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleraceaStem130.0 1445.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf320.0 2285.0 -0.67 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot100.0 965.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf320.0 2060.0 -0.85 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf210.0 3442.0 0.3 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf340.0 3652.0 0.47 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf90.0 1923.0 -0.97 *
Brassica rapaRoot110.0 1350.0 0.47 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf340.0 3652.0 0.47 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower280.0 3615.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf120.0 1604.0 -1.23 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf230.0 3387.0 0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed1860.0 2720.0 -0.41 *
Calathea allouiaRoot1415.0 1560.0 0.83 *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit240.0 1958.0 1.23 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit100.0 1364.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit10.0 179.0 -0.96 *
Carum carviSeed3610.0 4005.0 -0.08 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea mollisimaSeed1014.0 1804.0 -0.65 *
Castanea dentataSeed893.0 1589.0 -0.7 *
Castanea sativaSeed468.0 1028.0 -0.85 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 4700.0 0.1 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumLeaf490.0 3121.0 0.03 *
Chrysophyllum cainitoFruit20.0 60.0 -1.11 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cicer arietinumSeed2320.0 2860.0 -0.38 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf50.0 1224.0 -1.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf140.0 2254.0 -0.69 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 5742.0 0.37 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 707.0 -0.31 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus paradisiFruit3.0 222.0 -0.91 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit20.0 170.0 -0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus sinensisFruit200.0 1510.0 0.68 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulataFruit130.0 1048.0 0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf745.0 3720.0 0.53 *
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed620.0 1170.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coffea arabicaSeed-- -- *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf790.0 5510.0 2.01 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot200.0 680.0 -0.69 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf460.0 5290.0 1.83 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit40.0 1012.0 0.07 *
Cucurbita sppFruit170.0 2690.0 2.13 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed5195.0 7885.0 0.92 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit110.0 1310.0 0.43 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed2610.0 19000.0 3.79 *
Daucus carotaRoot70.0 575.0 -0.87 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot180.0 970.0 -0.19 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- -- *
Ficus caricaFruit60.0 287.0 -0.83 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareSeed3010.0 3302.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgareFruit3010.0 3302.0 2.89 *
Fragaria sppFruit10.0 119.0 -1.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed550.0 1520.0 -0.72 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed4920.0 5380.0 0.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 858.0 -0.92 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed4940.0 20500.0 4.18 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed1000.0 4000.0 -0.08 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Ipomoea batatasRoot230.0 1510.0 0.75 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf440.0 5845.0 2.29 *
Juglans nigraSeed4730.0 4945.0 0.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans regiaSeed2800.0 2905.0 -0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinereaSeed6111.0 6321.0 0.52 *
Lablab purpureusSeed140.0 2105.0 -0.57 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf160.0 2667.0 -0.35 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit40.0 900.0 -0.07 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling1050.0 3500.0 -0.77 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 2800.0 2.98 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.09 -1.11 *
Lupinus albusSeed2550.0 2850.0 -0.38 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit16.0 1322.0 0.45 *
Macadamia sppSeed920.0 950.0 -0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaPlant20.0 124.0 -0.96 *
Mangifera indicaFruit50.0 550.0 -0.5 *
Manihot esculentaRoot260.0 825.0 -0.44 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Melia azedarachSeed-- -- *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit-- -- -1.18 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mentha x piperitaLeaf530.0 2480.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicataLeaf460.0 3180.0 0.08 *
Moringa oleiferaShoot1230.0 5765.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed1875.0 3975.0 -0.09 *
Murraya spFruit170.0 490.0 -0.58 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit170.0 490.0 -0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinaleHerb200.0 4000.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed720.0 2182.0 -0.55 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome220.0 1050.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed13100.0 16750.0 3.21 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 2020.0 -0.89 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed5400.0 5763.0 0.37 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 1890.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 4830.0 0.13 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaPlant-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber130.0 1200.0 -0.57 *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant34.0 340.0 -0.85 *
Papaver somniferumSeed4700.0 5042.0 0.19 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed4500.0 5050.0 0.19 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 889.0 -0.33 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit290.0 1438.0 0.59 *
Petroselinum crispumPlant150.0 1282.0 -0.36 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed3250.0 3653.0 -0.17 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit220.0 2261.0 1.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling440.0 4731.0 1.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed680.0 3017.0 -0.34 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed2680.0 2920.0 -0.36 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit5.0 2190.0 1.52 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit20.0 355.0 -0.74 *
Pinus pineaSeed4300.0 6050.0 0.45 *
Pinus edulisSeed2070.0 2200.0 -0.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed3810.0 3963.0 -0.09 *
Pisum sativumFruit110.0 1088.0 0.16 *
Pisum sativumSeed820.0 3879.0 -0.11 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb90.0 2814.0 -1.0 *
Pouteria campechianaFruit130.0 330.0 -0.77 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pouteria caimitoFruit-- 1780.0 1.01 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus armeniacaFruit60.0 440.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persicaFruit170.0 1377.0 0.52 *
Prunus domesticaFruit60.0 405.0 -0.68 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium guajavaPlant50.0 360.0 -0.84 *
Psidium cattleianumFruit40.0 205.0 -0.93 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber1430.0 3357.0 1.67 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed3560.0 3884.0 -0.11 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf640.0 2765.0 -0.27 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 253.0 -1.43 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Punica granatumFruit-- -- *
Pyrus communisFruit50.0 309.0 -0.8 *
Raphanus sativusRoot70.0 1355.0 0.48 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot-- 1000.0 -0.14 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf470.0 1460.0 -1.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit140.0 693.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed2480.0 2785.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit10.0 145.0 -1.0 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 2270.0 -0.53 *
Sesamum indicumSeed3120.0 9413.0 1.32 *
Sinapis albaSeed4800.0 5136.0 0.21 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber310.0 1568.0 -0.18 *
Solanum melongenaFruit60.0 1487.0 0.65 *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant530.0 6294.0 2.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaFruit140.0 204.0 -0.93 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Thymus vulgarisPlant1370.0 1980.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed3120.0 3720.0 -0.15 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Triticum aestivumSeed1000.0 4000.0 -0.08 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit110.0 715.0 -0.3 *
Valerianella locustaPlant250.0 3470.0 0.77 *
Vicia fabaSeed430.0 2265.0 -0.53 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed420.0 3805.0 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit400.0 3292.0 2.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed2100.0 2426.0 -0.49 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling340.0 3571.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed2200.0 2436.0 -0.49 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed3460.0 3779.0 -0.14 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed2860.0 3145.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit220.0 1132.0 0.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysPollen Or Spore-- -- *
Zea maysSeed670.0 2787.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRoot130.0 737.0 -0.59 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome130.0 737.0 -1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.