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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit10.0 100.0 0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acanthopanax gracilistylisRoot Bark-- 74.0 -0.12 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant1.0 5.0 -0.66 *
Achyranthes bidentataRoot40.0 66.0 0.24 *
Aconitum carmichaeliiTuber-- 18.0 -0.53 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 309.0 1.22 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Actaea dahuricaRhizome-- 74.0 -0.34 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 1.4 -0.53 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- 675.0 0.66 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Akebia quinataStem-- 310.0 -0.97 *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- 33.0 -0.46 *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome360.0 479.0 2.36 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb1.6 15.3 -0.56 *
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot0.5 1.4 -0.53 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf3.0 40.0 -0.39 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Allium cepaSeed-- 19.4 -0.43 *
Allium cepaBulb1.0 38.0 1.4 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot6.0 21.0 -0.3 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 0.6 -0.46 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Aloe spp.Leaf-- 0.6 -0.46 *
Alpinia officinarumPlant-- -- *
Althaea officinalisRoot0.5 4.4 -0.49 *
Amomum xanthioidesSeed-- 565.0 6.37 *
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot3.0 14.0 -0.38 *
Amphicarpaea bracteataShoot-- 120.0 -0.96 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed-- 8.4 -0.56 *
Ananas comosusFruit12.0 209.0 0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anemarrhena asphodeloidesRhizome10.0 40.0 -0.57 *
Anethum graveolensPlant8.0 435.0 2.42 *
Anethum graveolensFruit-- 18.0 -0.28 *
Anethum graveolensSeed-- 18.0 -0.44 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensisRoot0.6 2.6 -0.51 *
Angelica laxifloraRoot-- 83.0 0.45 *
Angelica dahuricaRoot-- 110.0 0.77 *
Annona muricataFruit-- 2.7 -0.39 *
Annona cherimolaSeed80.0 100.0 0.58 *
Annona squamosaLeaf-- 253.0 -0.04 *
Annona cherimolaFruit1.0 5.0 -0.37 *
Anthriscus cerefoliumLeaf-- 21.0 -0.42 *
Apium graveolensRoot0.74 23.0 -0.27 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Apium graveolensPt1.0 33.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolensFruit1.3 6.3 -0.36 *
Apium graveolensSeed1.3 76.0 0.28 *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed11.0 30.0 -0.29 *
Arctium lappaRoot1.4 6.0 -0.47 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf2.0 16.5 -0.43 *
Areca catechuSeed-- 67.0 0.17 *
Arisaema consanguineumRhizome-- 4.0 -0.81 *
Aristolochia debilisFruit-- 33.0 -0.19 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot1.5 8.2 -0.45 *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant160.0 170.0 0.52 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- 80.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia capillarisPlant-- 37.0 -0.43 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit2.0 7.0 -0.36 *
Artocarpus altilisFruit0.6 3.5 -0.38 *
Asiasarum heterotropoidesRoot120.0 248.0 2.42 *
Asiasarum sieboldiiRoot120.0 248.0 2.42 *
Asimina trilobaFruit25.0 111.0 0.33 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 120.0 -0.96 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot2.0 100.0 -0.98 *
Asparagus lucidusRoot-- 10.0 -0.43 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot0.2 2.0 -0.52 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- *
Atractylodes ovataRhizome30.0 139.0 0.09 *
Atractylodes lanceaRhizome-- 39.0 -0.58 *
Avena sativaSeed20.0 204.0 1.87 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant0.1 0.5 -0.69 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit1.0 11.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Barosma betulinaLeaf-- 675.0 0.66 *
Belamcanda chinensisRhizome-- 13.0 -0.75 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Berberis vulgarisBark-- 6.0 -0.64 *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- 6.0 -0.47 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- 72.0 0.07 Jim Duke's personal files.
Bertholletia excelsaSeed-- 8.0 -0.57 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot3.0 90.0 0.53 *
Blechnum orientaleRhizome-- 28.0 -0.65 *
Bletilla striataTuber-- 10.0 -0.63 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Boehmeria niveaPlant80.0 140.0 0.31 *
Brassica pekinensisLeaf9.5 10.5 -0.44 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf1.0 45.0 -0.39 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf3.0 24.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot1.3 17.0 -0.34 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower1.5 48.0 -0.22 *
Brassica rapaRoot0.6 7.0 -0.46 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf8.0 50.0 -0.38 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf2.0 80.0 -0.33 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf2.0 80.0 -0.33 *
Brassica rapaSeed-- 20.0 -0.42 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf4.0 60.0 -0.36 *
Brassica nigraLeaf3.0 53.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Broussonetia papyriferaFruit-- 81.0 0.13 *
Bupleurum chinenseRoot0.6 5.0 -0.49 *
Cajanus cajanSeed17.0 21.0 -0.41 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 1200.0 1.54 *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- 11.0 -0.53 *
Capsicum annuumFruit0.4 1.4 -0.39 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit2.0 20.0 -0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit0.1 1.0 -0.4 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower0.4 3.1 -0.38 *
Carum carviSeed13.0 34.0 -0.24 *
Carum carviFruit13.0 34.0 -0.18 *
Carya ovataSeed-- 58.0 0.06 *
Carya illinoensisSeed-- 30.0 -0.29 *
Carya glabraShoot38.0 3300.0 1.56 *
Carya ovataShoot37.0 2700.0 1.08 *
Cassia toraSeed-- 24.0 -0.37 *
Castanea dentataSeed19.0 44.0 -0.12 *
Castanea sativaSeed5.0 13.0 -0.5 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed12.0 36.0 -0.22 *
Catalpa ovataFruit-- 14.0 -0.31 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot3.0 23.7 -0.26 *
Celosia cristataFlower-- 109.0 -0.01 *
Centella asiaticaLeaf3.0 27.7 -0.41 *
Chaenomeles lagenariaFruit-- 15.0 -0.3 *
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 52.0 -0.21 *
Chenopodium albumSeed-- 21.0 -0.41 *
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 38.0 -0.42 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- 81.0 -0.11 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumLeaf1.5 8.1 -0.45 *
Cicer arietinumSeed21.0 26.0 -0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf4.0 72.0 -0.34 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot0.3 1.4 -0.53 *
Cimicifuga dahuricaRhizome-- 74.0 -0.34 *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiBark-- 360.0 1.73 *
Cinnamomum verumBark66.0 140.0 0.26 *
Cinnamomum burmanniiBark-- 170.0 0.46 *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiRoot Bark-- 220.0 2.11 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark167.0 600.0 3.34 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- 101.6 -0.29 *
Cistanche salsaPlant-- 20.0 -0.55 *
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 4.0 -0.38 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus sinensisFruit-- 8.0 -0.35 *
Citrus reticulataFruit-- 4.6 -0.37 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit-- 8.0 -0.35 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Citrus paradisiFruit-- 7.7 -0.35 *
Citrus medicaFruit-- 9.0 -0.34 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant0.3 2.1 -0.68 *
Cnidium officinaleRhizome-- 30.0 -0.64 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed9.0 281.0 2.83 *
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed-- 26.0 -0.34 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Colocasia esculentaRoot1.3 7.6 -0.46 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf-- 45.0 -0.39 *
Coptis sppRhizome260.0 398.0 1.82 *
Coptis japonicaRhizome260.0 398.0 1.82 *
Coptis chinensisRhizome260.0 398.0 1.82 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- 64.0 -0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Coriandrum sativumFruit18.0 19.0 -0.28 *
Cornus officinalisFruit-- 11.0 -0.33 *
Corylus avellanaSeed16.0 100.0 0.58 *
Crataegus cuneataFruit-- 12.0 -0.32 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- 14.0 -0.31 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus laevigataFlower-- -- *
Crataegus laevigataFruit0.4 1.4 -0.39 *
Crocus sativusSilk Stigma Style-- 284.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucumis meloFruit0.4 7.7 -0.35 *
Cucumis sativusFruit0.5 98.0 0.24 *
Cucurbita sppFruit1.0 27.0 -0.23 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed40.0 100.0 0.58 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed24.0 33.0 -0.26 *
Cuminum cyminumFruit24.0 33.0 -0.19 *
Curcuma longaRhizome33.0 78.0 -0.32 *
Curcuma longaPlant2.5 8.2 -0.64 *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- 104.0 0.05 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cynanchum atratumRoot-- 341.0 3.53 *
Cynara cardunculusFlower2.0 17.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cyperus rotundusRhizome-- 28.0 -0.65 *
Cypripedium pubescensRoot-- 209.0 1.95 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot2.2 12.0 -0.4 *
Daucus carotaRoot1.0 62.0 0.19 *
Dendrobium nobileStem-- 53.0 -1.19 *
Dioscorea bulbiferaRhizome-- 4.0 -0.81 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot1.5 6.4 -0.47 *
Dioscorea alataPlant-- -- *
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 64.0 0.22 *
Diospyros virginianaStem22.0 1080.0 -0.3 *
Diospyros virginianaLeaf25.0 1500.0 2.03 *
Drynaria fortuneiRhizome-- 39.0 -0.58 *
Echinacea sppRoot-- 101.0 0.66 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Echinacea purpureaRoot3.0 10.1 -0.43 *
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit6.0 34.0 -0.18 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit66.0 280.0 1.44 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot0.6 3.0 -0.51 *
Elytrigia repensPlant43.0 188.0 0.65 *
Ephedra sppPlant-- 37.0 -0.43 *
Ephedra sinicaPlant1.0 5.4 -0.66 *
Equisetum arvensePlant1.5 6.9 -0.65 *
Equisetum hyemalePlant-- 12.0 -0.61 *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- 224.0 -0.09 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Eriocaulon spLeaf-- 96.0 -0.3 *
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf20.0 91.0 -0.31 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf28.0 55.0 -0.37 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf26.0 71.0 -0.34 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf35.0 36.0 -0.4 *
Eucommia ulmoidesBark-- 135.0 0.23 *
Euodia rutaecarpaFruit-- 63.0 0.01 *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- 70.0 -0.34 Tramil
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant0.5 5.0 -0.66 *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant2.0 12.6 -0.6 *
Fallopia japonicaPlant59.0 330.0 1.67 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Ficus caricaFruit1.0 7.0 -0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Firmiana simplexSeed-- 23.0 -0.38 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed0.5 4.3 -0.61 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit24.0 721.0 4.35 *
Forsythia suspensaFruit-- 120.0 0.39 *
Fragaria sppFruit1.4 125.0 0.42 *
Frangula purshianaBark0.4 1.4 -0.67 *
Fraxinus rhynchophyllaBark-- 89.0 -0.08 *
Fritillaria thunbergiiBulb-- 12.0 -0.85 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Fucus vesiculosusPlant0.9 7.6 -0.64 *
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit16.0 19.0 -0.28 *
Gastrodia elataRhizome-- 26.0 -0.66 *
Genipa americanaSeed-- 6.0 -0.59 *
Genipa americanaFruit-- 1.0 -0.4 *
Gentiana scabraRoot-- 98.0 0.62 *
Gentiana luteaRoot0.5 2.3 -0.52 *
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 49.0 -0.34 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf0.7 3.0 -0.45 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed1.0 3.0 -0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederaceaPlant82.0 100.0 0.02 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Glehnia littoralisRoot-- 70.0 0.29 *
Glycine maxSeed8.0 60.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot0.7 4.7 -0.49 *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisRoot13.0 26.0 -0.24 *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf0.4 2.0 -0.46 *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot2.0 7.7 -0.45 *
Helianthus annuusSeed20.0 21.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosusTuber3.0 228.0 2.21 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower2.0 15.1 -0.34 *
Hordeum vulgareSprout Seedling-- 26.0 0.84 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Hordeum vulgareSeed2.0 120.0 0.83 *
Hordeum vulgareStem-- 60.0 -1.19 *
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- 120.0 0.17 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 8.1 -0.35 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Humulus lupulusFlower1.5 8.1 -0.36 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot7.0 18.7 -0.32 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot2.4 8.5 -0.44 *
Hyoscyamus nigerSeed-- 166.0 1.4 *
Inula heleniumRoot0.2 0.8 -0.54 *
Inula heleniumPlant-- -- *
Ipomoea batatasRoot1.0 15.0 -0.37 *
Isatis tinctoriaRoot-- 181.0 1.62 *
Juglans nigraSeed30.0 46.0 -0.09 *
Juglans regiaSeed27.0 32.0 -0.27 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigraFruit23.0 24.0 -0.25 *
Juglans nigraPericarp0.3 2.4 *
Juglans cinereaSeed31.0 72.0 0.23 *
Juncus effususPith-- 171.0 1.0 *
Juniperus virginianaShoot11.0 2640.0 1.04 *
Juniperus communisFruit2.0 6.3 -0.36 *
Jussiaea repensPlant-- 799.0 5.03 *
Lablab purpureusSeed-- 39.0 -0.18 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf1.0 240.0 -0.06 *
Lantana camaraShoot308.0 412.0 -0.73 *
Larrea tridentataPlant2.0 5.2 -0.66 *
Laurus nobilisLeaf-- 82.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling5.0 18.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 8.0 -0.45 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Ligustrum lucidumFruit-- 26.0 -0.23 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Ligustrum japonicumFruit-- 26.0 -0.23 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed50.0 70.0 0.21 *
Linum usitatissimumHay-- 8.1 -1.0 *
Liquidambar styracifluaStem14.0 2400.0 0.85 *
Lobelia inflataLeaf0.9 8.0 -0.45 *
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- 70.0 -0.15 *
Lophatherum gracilePlant-- 445.0 2.49 *
Lycium chinenseRoot Bark-- 91.0 0.14 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycium chinenseFruit-- 21.0 -0.27 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit0.6 100.0 0.26 *
Lycopodium clavatumPlant-- 100.0 0.02 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lygodium japonicumPollen Or Spore-- 191.0 *
Magnolia fargesiiFlower-- 42.0 -0.24 *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- 42.0 -0.24 *
Magnolia officinalisBark-- 120.0 0.13 *
Magnolia kobusFlower-- 42.0 -0.24 *
Malus domesticaFruit-- 29.0 -0.21 *
Mangifera indicaFruit0.2 12.2 -0.32 *
Manihot esculentaRoot0.5 2.5 -0.52 *
Medicago sativaPlant0.5 2.5 -0.68 *
Mentha spicataLeaf11.0 77.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 83.0 -0.1 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- 44.0 -0.38 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Mentha x piperitaLeaf0.9 6.1 -0.45 *
Momordica charantiaFruit-- 10.0 -0.34 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Morinda spRoot-- 520.0 5.66 *
Morus albaRoot Bark15.0 37.0 -0.68 *
Murraya spFruit0.6 1.8 -0.39 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit0.6 1.8 -0.39 *
Myrica ceriferaBark1.4 6.4 -0.63 *
Myristica fragransSeed23.0 29.0 -0.31 *
Myristica fragransAril-- 14.0 *
Nardostachys chinensisRhizome-- 141.0 0.1 *
Nasturtium officinalePlant-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed-- 125.0 0.89 *
Nepeta catariaPlant5.0 37.4 -0.43 *
Notopterygium incisumRhizome-- 39.0 -0.58 *
Nyssa sylvaticaLeaf12.0 2730.0 4.08 *
Nyssa sylvaticaStem2.0 1320.0 -0.09 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 32.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed5.0 168.0 1.43 *
Ophiopogon japonicusTuber5.0 27.0 -0.41 *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 47.0 -0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Origanum majoranaPlant-- 54.0 -0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Paeonia lactifloraRoot14.0 20.0 -0.31 *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark10.0 34.0 -0.73 *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark10.0 34.0 -0.73 *
Panax ginsengRoot0.4 1.9 -0.52 *
Panax ginsengFruit-- -- *
Panax ginsengPt-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant19.0 156.0 0.42 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax japonicusRhizome-- 43.0 -0.55 *
Panax ginsengStem-- -- *
Papaver somniferumSeed29.0 68.0 0.18 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot0.2 1.0 -0.53 *
Passiflora incarnataFlower0.2 2.1 -0.39 *
Pastinaca sativaRoot2.0 33.0 -0.15 *
Perilla frutescensPlant-- 180.0 0.6 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Persea americanaFruit2.0 10.0 -0.34 *
Petasites japonicusPlant70.0 100.0 0.02 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Petroselinum crispumPlant0.5 6.0 -0.65 *
Peucedanum decursivumPlant43.0 69.0 -0.2 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit1.0 150.0 0.59 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed6.0 12.0 -0.52 *
Phaseolus lunatusSeed8.0 100.0 0.58 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed2.0 24.0 -0.37 *
Phaseolus coccineusSeed-- 3.2 -0.63 *
Phellodendron amurenseBark-- 20.0 -0.54 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit3.0 45.0 -0.11 *
Phoenix dactyliferaSeed-- 16.0 -0.47 Abstract (See species file)
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit11.0 55.0 -0.04 *
Pimenta dioicaBud29.0 70.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 23.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pimpinella anisumFruit-- 23.0 -0.25 *
Pinellia ternataTuber11.0 46.0 -0.16 *
Pinus echinataShoot51.0 1260.0 -0.06 *
Piper nigrumFruit19.0 56.0 -0.03 *
Pistacia veraSeed3.2 3.4 -0.62 *
Pisum sativumSeed3.0 21.0 -0.41 *
Pisum sativumPlant-- 85.0 -0.09 *
Plantago psylliumSeed0.4 1.6 -0.65 *
Plantago majorSeed0.5 1.6 -0.65 *
Plantago asiaticaPlant-- 74.0 -0.16 *
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot24.0 30.0 -0.19 *
Polygala tenuifoliaRoot-- 24.0 -0.26 *
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- 21.0 -0.3 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polygonum multiflorumPlant-- 18.5 -0.56 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Polygonum multiflorumRhizome-- 26.0 -0.66 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Polystichum polyblepharumPlant37.0 62.0 -0.25 *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisFlower-- 96.0 -0.05 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Prunus persicaBark-- 54.0 -0.32 *
Prunus dulcisSeed14.0 32.0 -0.27 *
Prunus armeniacaSeed1.0 11.0 -0.53 *
Prunus persicaSeed-- 17.0 -0.45 *
Prunus domesticaFruit0.22 25.5 -0.24 *
Prunus persicaFruit-- 22.5 -0.26 *
Prunus cerasusFruit1.0 8.0 -0.35 *
Psidium guajavaFruit1.0 12.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed34.0 44.0 -0.12 *
Pueraria pseudohirsutaRoot3.0 5.0 -0.49 *
Pulsatilla chinensisRoot-- 119.0 0.88 *
Pyrus communisFruit0.3 5.55 -0.37 *
Quercus rubraStem70.0 3300.0 1.64 *
Quercus albaBark6.0 25.3 -0.51 *
Quercus velutinaStem24.0 1984.0 0.49 *
Quercus rubraSeed-- 3.9 -0.62 *
Quercus stellataStem12.0 1680.0 0.22 *
Quercus albaStem20.0 3800.0 2.07 *
Quisqualis indicaFruit-- 33.0 -0.19 *
Raphanus sativusSeed-- 40.0 -0.17 *
Raphanus sativusRoot0.5 20.0 -0.31 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot-- 24.0 -0.26 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt2.0 35.0 1.0 *
Rheum palmatumRhizome19.0 46.0 -0.53 *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- 300.0 0.04 *
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- 37.0 -0.43 *
Rhus copallinaLeaf8.0 480.0 0.34 *
Rhus glabraStem3.0 134.0 -1.12 *
Rhus copallinaStem7.0 915.0 -0.44 *
Ribes nigrumFruit0.5 27.0 -0.23 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit1.0 16.0 -0.3 *
Ribes rubrumFruit1.0 15.0 -0.3 *
Rosa caninaFruit0.8 4.0 -0.38 *
Rosa laevigataFruit-- 59.0 -0.01 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf10.0 30.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant18.0 19.0 -0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubia cordifoliaRoot-- 94.0 0.58 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf25.0 146.0 -0.22 *
Rubus idaeusFruit10.0 80.0 0.12 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rubus chingiiFruit-- 287.0 1.49 *
Rubus chamaemorusFruit7.0 125.0 0.42 *
Rumex crispusRoot4.0 14.5 -0.37 *
Rumex acetosaLeaf6.0 60.0 -0.36 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot2.0 7.0 -0.46 *
Salix albaBark1.0 6.6 -0.63 *
Salvia miltiorrhizaRoot-- 23.0 -0.27 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Salvia officinalisLeaf0.5 3.0 -0.45 *
Sambucus nigraFruit2.0 11.0 -0.33 *
Sassafras albidumStem5.0 680.0 -0.65 *
Sassafras albidumLeaf23.0 1020.0 1.24 *
Satureja montanaPlant-- 61.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Satureja hortensisLeaf-- 61.0 -0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Schisandra chinensisFruit0.6 3.7 -0.38 *
Schizonepeta tenuifoliaPlant-- 68.0 -0.21 *
Scrophularia buergerianaRoot-- 18.0 -0.33 *
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot18.0 29.0 -0.2 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant0.6 4.7 -0.66 *
Secale cerealeSeed25.0 30.0 -0.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Senna occidentalisSeed-- 42.0 -0.14 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed10.0 14.0 -0.49 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf2.0 8.0 -0.45 *
Serenoa repensFruit1.2 8.9 -0.34 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sesamum indicumSeed-- 14.0 -0.49 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Siegesbeckia orientalisPlant-- 231.0 0.96 *
Silybum marianumLeaf3.2 14.7 -0.44 *
Silybum marianumPlant-- 14.7 -0.59 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Simmondsia chinensisSeed-- 21.0 -0.41 *
Sinapis albaSeed21.0 41.0 -0.16 *
Sinomenium acutumRhizome-- 21.0 -0.7 *
Smilax officinalisRoot1.2 5.7 -0.48 *
Smilax sppRoot1.2 5.7 -0.48 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber1.3 22.0 -0.48 *
Solanum melongenaFruit1.4 40.0 -0.14 *
Sophora subprostrataRoot-- 14.0 -0.38 *
Sophora angustifoliaRoot28.0 42.0 -0.04 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit12.0 75.0 0.09 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant3.0 485.0 2.78 *
Spirulina spp.Plant-- 16.0 -0.58 *
Spondias tuberosaFruit-- 0.95 -0.4 *
Spondias dulcisFruit-- 1.2 -0.4 *
Stachys officinalisPlant3.2 19.0 -0.56 *
Stellaria mediaPlant0.4 5.3 -0.66 *
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 147.0 -0.22 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphoricarpos orbiculatusStem19.0 2640.0 1.06 *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 67.0 0.25 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinaleLeaf0.6 5.8 -0.45 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit100.0 1200.0 7.51 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower100.0 1200.0 3.85 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark0.5 2.7 -0.66 *
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- 8.1 -0.64 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum mongolicumPlant-- 178.0 0.58 *
Taraxacum officinaleRoot1.0 6.8 -0.46 *
Taraxacum officinalePlant100.0 130.0 0.24 *
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf14.0 206.0 -0.12 *
Tephrosia candidaPlant-- 38.0 -0.42 *
Tetrapanax papyriferaPith-- 43.0 -1.0 *
Thymus vulgarisLeaf1.0 6.4 -0.45 *
Trachyspermum ammiFruit-- 33.1 -0.19 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot-- 12.0 -0.4 *
Trifolium pratenseFlower1.0 5.9 -0.37 *
Trifolium pratenseHay25.0 464.0 1.0 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed0.3 2.1 -0.64 *
Triticum aestivumPlant-- 105.0 0.06 *
Triticum aestivumSeed-- 86.0 0.4 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf1.1 5.4 -0.45 *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 25.0 -0.3 *
Ulmus rubraBark0.3 1.9 -0.66 *
Urtica dioicaRoot-- 7.0 -0.46 *
Urtica dioicaSeed-- 12.0 -0.52 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf2.0 7.8 -0.45 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit0.6 5.0 -0.37 *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- 2500.0 3.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit3.0 20.0 -0.27 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf-- 2500.0 3.7 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit7.0 91.0 0.2 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit28.0 250.0 1.24 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot0.7 5.6 -0.48 *
Valerianella radicataPlant27.1 28.6 -0.49 *
Valerianella locustaPlant179.0 201.0 0.75 *
Verbascum thapsusLeaf5.3 12.0 -0.44 *
Viburnum opulusBark-- 49.0 -0.35 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vigna unguiculataSeed5.6 240.0 2.32 *
Vigna radiataSeed9.6 12.2 -0.51 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed16.0 17.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed17.0 20.0 -0.42 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1.4 25.0 0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed18.0 20.0 -0.42 *
Viscum albumLeaf-- 159.0 -0.2 *
Vitis viniferaFruit0.5 54.0 -0.05 *
Vitis viniferaStem-- 986.0 -0.38 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot1.7 11.3 -0.41 *
Yucca baccataRoot0.1 0.6 -0.54 *
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- 34.0 -1.0 *
Zea maysSeed0.84 63.0 0.12 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot2.4 33.8 -0.14 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome106.0 350.0 1.5 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 10.0 -0.34 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.