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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Aconitum napellusPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Allium cepaBulb-- -- Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaLeaf-- -- Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Alocasia macrorrhizaPlant-- -- *
Ananas comosusFruit1000.0 4700.0 -0.65 *
Angelica archangelicaRoot-- -- *
Angelica archangelicaPlant-- -- *
Annona muricataPlant-- -- *
Annona squamosaPlant-- -- *
Apium graveolensRoot-- -- *
Apium graveolensPt-- -- *
Apium graveolensShoot-- -- *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arnica montanaFlower-- -- *
Avena sativaPetiole-- -- *
Avena sativaHull Husk-- -- *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit-- 12100.0 -0.16 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Berberis vulgarisFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Borago officinalisPlant-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf-- -- *
Brassica oleraceaStem-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Plant-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf-- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Calendula officinalisFlower-- 6400.0 -1.0 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Carica papayaLatex Exudate-- 4400.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Carica papayaFruit3150.0 23333.0 0.57 *
Cephaelis ipecacuanhaPlant-- -- *
Chaenomeles lagenariaFruit-- -- *
Chelidonium majusPlant-- -- *
Chenopodium ambrosioidesFruit-- -- *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumPlant-- -- *
Citrus mitisFruit Juice-- 2000.0 *
Citrus sinensisFruit600.0 2000.0 -0.82 *
Citrus reticulataFruit1800.0 2100.0 -0.82 *
Citrus paradisiFruit400.0 600.0 -0.91 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 2000.0 -0.82 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Convallaria majalisPlant-- -- *
Cornus officinalisFruit-- -- *
Cryptostegia grandifoliaLatex Exudate-- -- *
Cydonia oblongaSeed-- -- *
Daphne mezereumBark-- -- *
Datura stramoniumPlant-- 2120.0 -0.62 *
Daucus carotaRoot-- -- *
Elytrigia repensRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Euonymus atropurpureusPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia tirucalliPlant-- -- *
Fagopyrum esculentumLeaf-- 15100.0 0.61 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus caricaLeaf-- 23400.0 1.66 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Ficus caricaFruit Juice-- -- Shiraishi, S. C., Kawakami, K., Widodo, S. E., Shiraishi, M., Kitazaki, M. 1996. Organic acid profiles in the juice of fig fruits. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, 41(1-2): 29-33.
Ficus caricaFruit-- 30200.0 1.01 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Fragaria sppFruit3500.0 8000.0 -0.43 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Frangula purshianaPlant-- -- *
Galium odoratumPlant-- -- *
Genipa americanaFruit-- 6300.0 -0.54 *
Ginkgo bilobaPollen Or Spore-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Glycine maxSeed700.0 1000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Hedera helixPlant-- -- *
Helianthus annuusLeaf-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Hibiscus sabdariffaLeaf-- 12500.0 0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower6233.0 56667.0 1.0 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaStem-- 6000.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit15000.0 29000.0 0.94 *
Juglans regiaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Kalanchoe daegrimontianaPlant-- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnataLeaf-- -- *
Lactuca scariolaLatex Exudate-- -- *
Lactuca sativaLeaf-- 600.0 -1.22 *
Lactuca virosaPlant-- -- *
Ledum palustrePlant-- -- *
Leonurus cardiacaPlant-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- -- *
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lupinus albusSeed-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Mangifera indicaFruit6700.0 36600.0 1.43 *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit530.0 3730.0 -0.71 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Myrtus communisFruit-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Opuntia ficus-indicaLeaf-- 950.0 -1.18 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit180.0 1700.0 -0.84 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaPlant-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Papaver somniferumLatex Exudate-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Passiflora edulisFruit1200.0 3800.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Petroselinum crispumRoot-- -- *
Physalis peruvianaPlant-- -- *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit116.0 1500.0 -0.85 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piscidia piscipulaPlant-- -- *
Pisum sativumSeed-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperoidesPlant-- -- *
Polypodium vulgareRoot-- -- *
Populus nigraPlant-- -- *
Portulaca oleraceaPlant-- 5100.0 1.41 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus cerasusFruit Juice-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit7000.0 22000.0 0.48 *
Prunus domesticaFruit-- 15000.0 0.02 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Punica granatumFruit-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit Juice-- -- *
Pyrus communisFruit-- -- *
Quassia amaraRoot-- -- *
Quisqualis indicaFruit-- -- *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt-- -- *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit-- 7300.0 -0.48 *
Ribes rubrumFruit-- 2600.0 -0.78 *
Rosa gallicaFlower-- -- *
Rosa centifoliaFlower-- -- *
Rosa sppFruit-- -- *
Rosa laevigataFruit-- -- *
Rosa caninaFruit15000.0 62200.0 3.1 *
Rubus chingiiFruit-- -- *
Rubus idaeusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rubus fruticosusLeaf-- -- *
Ruta graveolensLeaf-- -- *
Salvia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFruit1200.0 19000.0 0.29 *
Sanguinaria canadensisPlant-- -- *
Sarcostemma acidumPlant-- -- *
Schisandra chinensisFruit5000.0 33333.0 1.22 *
Schisandra chinensisPlant-- -- *
Sclerocarya caffraFruit-- -- *
Solanum tuberosumTuber-- 1120.0 *
Sophora pachycarpaLeaf-- -- *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit19000.0 39000.0 1.59 *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 4300.0 -0.75 Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Stevia rebaudianaPlant-- 1880.0 -0.79 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Tamarindus indicaLeaf-- 15000.0 0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indicaFruit-- 10000.0 -0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- -- *
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit-- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Valeriana jatamansiRoot-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Valeriana officinalisRoot-- -- *
Vanilla planifoliaFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Viburnum prunifoliumRoot Bark-- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viburnum opulusBark-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vicia fabaFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viola odorataFlower-- -- *
Vitis viniferaFruit1500.0 2000.0 -0.82 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vitis viniferaPlant-- -- *
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Zea maysPlant-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.