Data Views

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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit380.0 6000.0 1.79 *
Abelmoschus manihotLeaf564.0 4862.0 0.28 *
Acacia niloticaPlant-- -- *
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- *
Acanthopanax gracilistylisRoot Bark-- 2840.0 1.09 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant340.0 1920.0 -0.67 *
Achyranthes bidentataRoot1440.0 5730.0 1.69 *
Aconitum carmichaeliiTuber-- 490.0 -0.88 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 1100.0 -0.56 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 1740.0 -0.44 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actaea dahuricaRhizome-- 1450.0 -0.2 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Actinidia chinensisFruit300.0 1770.0 -0.17 *
Aframomum meleguetaFruit-- 1500.0 -0.29 Wealth of India.
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- 2210.0 -0.74 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Akebia quinataStem-- 840.0 -1.65 *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- 1090.0 -0.45 *
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome1410.0 1740.0 0.1 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf355.0 6875.0 1.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb160.0 1210.0 0.68 *
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot448.0 1210.0 -0.72 *
Allium cepaBulb76.0 1230.0 0.73 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot520.0 1750.0 -0.43 *
Aloe spp.Leaf5.0 930.0 -1.23 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 930.0 -1.23 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Althaea officinalisRoot559.0 5180.0 1.39 *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf550.0 6616.0 0.96 *
Amomum xanthioidesSeed-- 3540.0 0.23 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot220.0 3120.0 0.3 *
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Amphicarpaea bracteataShoot-- 4100.0 -0.47 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed260.0 2650.0 -0.12 *
Ananas comosusFruit110.0 1075.0 -0.49 *
Anemarrhena asphodeloidesRhizome1130.0 1200.0 -0.46 *
Anethum graveolensSeed2449.0 2893.0 -0.02 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensPlant560.0 6470.0 0.75 *
Anethum graveolensFruit2449.0 2893.0 0.35 *
Angelica sinensisRoot583.0 2650.0 0.05 *
Angelica laxifloraRoot-- 1950.0 -0.33 *
Angelica dahuricaRoot-- 3.67 -1.36 *
Annona reticulataFruit180.0 630.0 -0.69 *
Annona muricataFruit210.0 2400.0 0.13 *
Annona cherimolaSeed810.0 1045.0 -0.75 *
Annona squamosaFruit210.0 785.0 -0.62 *
Annona cherimolaFruit200.0 1000.0 -0.52 *
Anthriscus cerefoliumLeaf1300.0 1400.0 -1.05 *
Apium graveolensLeaf99.0 2650.0 -0.57 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolensSeed155.0 4903.0 0.77 *
Apium graveolensRoot140.0 1635.0 -0.49 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Apium graveolensFruit153.0 730.0 -0.65 *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed1700.0 2110.0 -0.33 *
Arachis hypogaeaPlant3500.0 8700.0 1.44 *
Arctium lappaRoot1262.0 5370.0 1.49 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf140.0 1210.0 -1.13 *
Areca catechuSeed-- 500.0 -0.97 *
Arisaema consanguineumRhizome-- 100.0 -1.59 *
Aristolochia debilisFruit-- 1880.0 -0.12 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot1624.0 9020.0 3.44 *
Artemisia vulgarisShoot-- 2700.0 -0.66 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artemisia capillarisPlant-- 1000.0 -0.95 *
Artemisia herba-albaPlant-- 2060.0 -0.62 *
Artemisia dracunculusPlant-- 3470.0 -0.19 *
Artocarpus altilisFruit220.0 975.0 -0.53 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit370.0 1380.0 -0.35 *
Asiasarum sieboldiiRoot2520.0 2600.0 0.02 *
Asiasarum heterotropoidesRoot2520.0 2600.0 0.02 *
Asimina trilobaFruit1090.0 5128.0 1.39 *
Aspalathus linearisLeaf-- -- *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 3300.0 -0.58 *
Aspalathus linearisPlant-- 140.0 -1.22 *
Asparagus lucidusRoot-- 430.0 -1.13 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot240.0 2400.0 -0.09 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot120.0 7000.0 -0.07 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot800.0 5000.0 1.3 *
Atractylodes lanceaRhizome-- 790.0 -0.88 *
Atractylodes ovataRhizome760.0 960.0 -0.7 *
Avena sativaSeed300.0 2900.0 -0.02 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant2640.0 12000.0 2.46 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit80.0 1200.0 -0.43 *
Azadirachta indicaLeaf-- 7100.0 1.15 *
Azadirachta indicaFruit-- 4000.0 0.87 *
Barosma betulinaLeaf-- 2210.0 -0.74 *
Belamcanda chinensisRhizome-- 970.0 -0.69 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Benincasa hispidaFruit190.0 4870.0 1.27 *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- 1430.0 -0.6 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Berberis vulgarisBark-- 1430.0 -0.22 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed1600.0 3370.0 0.17 *
Beta vulgarisRoot130.0 4200.0 0.87 *
Blechnum orientaleRhizome-- 2580.0 0.96 *
Bletilla striataTuber-- 1890.0 0.26 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Borago officinalisLeaf520.0 7436.0 1.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleraceaStem190.0 2110.0 -1.12 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf100.0 2228.0 -0.73 *
Brassica nigraLeaf132.0 2471.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf106.0 5844.0 0.66 *
Brassica rapaRoot110.0 2000.0 -0.3 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf340.0 2190.0 -0.75 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf230.0 1642.0 -0.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot110.0 2610.0 0.03 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf214.0 3072.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf106.0 5844.0 0.66 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica pekinensisLeaf2850.0 3150.0 -0.38 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower115.0 2250.0 -0.41 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf170.0 2786.0 -0.52 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf214.0 3072.0 -0.41 *
Brassica junceaLeaf353.0 3837.0 -0.11 *
Broussonetia papyriferaFruit-- 4030.0 0.88 *
Bupleurum chinenseRoot550.0 5000.0 1.3 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 2200.0 -0.74 *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed-- 2190.0 -0.3 *
Capsicum annuumFruit604.0 2340.0 0.1 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit230.0 2203.0 0.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit110.0 815.0 -0.61 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower260.0 1860.0 -0.69 *
Carum carviSeed2070.0 2950.0 0.0 *
Carum carviFruit2580.0 2863.0 0.34 *
Carya ovataShoot125.0 21600.0 1.95 *
Carya glabraShoot144.0 24200.0 2.31 *
Carya ovataSeed-- 900.0 -0.81 *
Carya illinoensisSeed-- 980.0 -0.78 *
Cassia toraSeed-- 3180.0 0.09 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed820.0 1531.0 -0.56 *
Castanea dentataSeed790.0 1406.0 -0.61 *
Castanea sativaSeed320.0 704.0 -0.89 *
Catalpa ovataFruit-- 1960.0 -0.08 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot143.0 1300.0 -0.67 *
Celosia cristataFlower-- 6080.0 2.36 *
Centella asiaticaLeaf342.0 3200.0 -0.36 *
Chaenomeles lagenariaFruit-- 990.0 -0.53 *
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 2920.0 0.08 *
Chamissoa altissimaLeaf70.0 715.0 -1.32 Tramil
Chenopodium albumSeed-- 2920.0 -0.01 *
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 19600.0 4.82 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum partheniumLeaf432.0 2400.0 -0.67 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- 2400.0 -0.52 *
Chrysanthemum coronariumBud170.0 2285.0 1.0 *
Cicer arietinumSeed1110.0 1348.0 -0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium intybusRoot220.0 1100.0 -0.78 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf130.0 2652.0 -0.57 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf95.0 2400.0 -0.67 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot365.0 1740.0 -0.44 *
Cimicifuga dahuricaRhizome-- 1450.0 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark770.0 1680.0 -0.05 *
Cistanche salsaPlant-- 810.0 -1.01 *
Citrullus lanatusFruit1081.0 1500.0 -0.29 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus reticulataFruit111.0 1416.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus medicaFruit-- 950.0 -0.55 *
Citrus paradisiFruit15.0 3300.0 0.54 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit800.0 1730.0 -0.19 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Citrus sinensisFruit98.0 1075.0 -0.49 *
Cnicus benedictusPlant235.0 1770.0 -0.71 *
Cnidium officinaleRhizome-- 850.0 -0.82 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed300.0 770.0 -0.86 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed-- 1490.0 -0.58 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Colocasia esculentaRoot200.0 1350.0 -0.64 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf200.0 3140.0 -0.38 *
Commiphora wightiiInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coptis sppRhizome2240.0 2420.0 0.8 *
Coptis japonicaRhizome2240.0 2420.0 0.8 *
Coptis chinensisRhizome2240.0 2420.0 0.8 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf640.0 5200.0 0.41 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf6940.0 7488.0 1.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Coriandrum sativumFruit2939.0 4016.0 0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cornus officinalisFruit-- 830.0 -0.6 *
Corylus avellanaSeed1500.0 3156.0 0.08 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit262.0 940.0 -0.55 *
Crataegus cuneataFruit-- 760.0 -0.63 *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- 940.0 -0.55 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cucumis sativusFruit101.0 7000.0 2.26 *
Cucumis meloFruit92.0 3300.0 0.54 *
Cucurbita maximaLeaf388.0 2752.0 -0.53 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit120.0 1429.0 -0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita sppFruit230.0 3640.0 0.7 *
Cucurbita pepoFlower240.0 4950.0 1.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita pepoSeed5140.0 8500.0 2.19 *
Curcuma longaPlant3038.0 9800.0 1.78 *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- 3310.0 -0.23 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cynanchum atratumRoot-- 2210.0 -0.19 *
Cynara cardunculusFlower555.0 4275.0 1.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cyperus rotundusRhizome-- 1500.0 -0.15 *
Cypripedium pubescensRoot-- 1090.0 -0.78 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot180.0 1215.0 -0.72 *
Daucus carotaRoot100.0 1980.0 -0.31 *
Dendrobium nobileStem-- 520.0 -1.79 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot94.0 792.0 -0.94 *
Dioscorea bulbiferaRhizome-- 370.0 -1.31 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot391.0 1630.0 -0.5 *
Dioscorea alataRoot66.0 827.0 -0.92 *
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 1630.0 -0.5 *
Diospyros virginianaStem660.0 5400.0 0.27 *
Diospyros virginianaLeaf1500.0 5000.0 0.34 *
Drynaria fortuneiRhizome-- 4140.0 2.57 *
Echinacea purpureaRoot467.0 1860.0 -0.37 *
Echinacea sppRoot1170.0 1860.0 -0.37 *
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit170.0 1010.0 -0.52 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot1050.0 5000.0 1.3 *
Elytrigia repensPlant-- 7570.0 1.09 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ephedra sppPlant-- 4780.0 0.22 *
Ephedra sinicaPlant443.0 2110.0 -0.61 *
Equisetum hyemalePlant-- 1010.0 -0.95 *
Equisetum arvensePlant935.0 4370.0 0.09 *
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- 2480.0 -0.64 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Eriocaulon spLeaf-- 670.0 -1.33 *
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf2156.0 9800.0 2.19 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf3800.0 6900.0 1.07 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf2130.0 5700.0 0.61 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf5200.0 6700.0 0.99 *
Eucommia ulmoidesBark-- 2080.0 0.23 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Euodia rutaecarpaFruit-- 4950.0 1.31 *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant540.0 6000.0 0.6 *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- 3200.0 -0.36 Tramil
Euphrasia officinalisPlant641.0 4160.0 0.03 *
Feijoa sellowianaFruit80.0 500.0 -0.75 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Ficus caricaFruit158.0 872.0 -0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Firmiana simplexSeed-- 4480.0 0.61 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit1730.0 5012.0 1.33 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed394.0 3650.0 0.28 *
Forsythia suspensaFruit-- 1160.0 -0.45 *
Fragaria sppFruit98.0 1545.0 -0.27 *
Frangula purshianaBark440.0 1590.0 -0.11 *
Fraxinus rhynchophyllaBark-- 2070.0 0.22 *
Fritillaria thunbergiiBulb-- 370.0 -1.41 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Fucus vesiculosusPlant1023.0 8670.0 1.43 *
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit1880.0 2170.0 0.02 *
Gastrodia elataRhizome-- 590.0 -1.09 *
Genipa americanaFruit250.0 2900.0 0.36 *
Genipa americanaSeed-- 1500.0 -0.57 *
Gentiana scabraRoot-- 1150.0 -0.75 *
Gentiana luteaRoot603.0 2740.0 0.09 *
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 1660.0 -0.75 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf240.0 1000.0 -1.21 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed270.0 605.0 -0.92 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glehnia littoralisRoot-- 1650.0 -0.49 *
Glycine maxSeed430.0 3160.0 0.08 *
Glycyrrhiza uralensisRoot3690.0 5070.0 1.33 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot1515.0 9650.0 3.77 *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf201.0 1060.0 -1.18 *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot1034.0 5440.0 1.53 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber600.0 1800.0 0.18 Bonness, M. S., Promising new drugs from plants: poisons that heal, Herbarist, #56, 1990, 59-68
Helianthus annuusSeed3540.0 5176.0 0.88 *
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower44.0 400.0 -1.74 *
Hordeum vulgareSprout Seedling-- 1670.0 -0.58 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Hordeum vulgareSeed100.0 2300.0 -0.26 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Hordeum vulgareStem-- 2250.0 -1.06 *
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- 3430.0 -0.2 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Humulus lupulusFruit-- 2380.0 0.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Humulus lupulusFlower443.0 2380.0 -0.31 *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot567.0 1620.0 -0.5 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot814.0 2940.0 0.2 *
Hyoscyamus nigerSeed-- 5250.0 0.91 *
Inula heleniumRoot1650.0 7500.0 2.63 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot95.0 710.0 -0.99 *
Ipomoea batatasLeaf-- 620.0 -1.35 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf510.0 3810.0 -0.12 *
Isatis tinctoriaRoot-- 4410.0 0.98 *
Juglans nigraSeed1795.0 2155.0 -0.31 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 440.0 -0.78 *
Juglans nigraPericarp53.0 440.0 *
Juglans regiaSeed1310.0 1945.0 -0.4 *
Juglans cinereaSeed2212.0 2676.0 -0.11 *
Juncus effususPith-- 920.0 -1.0 *
Juniperus virginianaShoot266.0 8800.0 0.18 *
Juniperus communisFruit9.0 30.0 -0.97 *
Jussiaea repensPlant-- 3590.0 -0.15 *
Lablab purpureusSeed400.0 5505.0 1.01 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf110.0 8700.0 1.77 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit110.0 2465.0 0.16 *
Lantana camaraFruit-- 1460.0 -0.31 *
Larrea tridentataPlant566.0 1720.0 -0.73 *
Lens culinarisSeed765.0 1280.0 -0.66 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling345.0 1323.0 -1.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ligustrum lucidumFruit-- 1020.0 -0.51 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Ligustrum japonicumFruit-- 1020.0 -0.51 *
Linum usitatissimumHay-- 3100.0 -1.0 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed3715.0 7002.0 1.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Liquidambar styracifluaStem200.0 8400.0 1.53 *
Liquidambar styracifluaLeaf280.0 5740.0 0.62 *
Lobelia inflataLeaf183.0 1620.0 -0.97 *
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- 2990.0 0.13 *
Lophatherum gracilePlant-- 2490.0 -0.49 *
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit140.0 2800.0 0.31 *
Lupinus albusSeed1980.0 2200.0 -0.29 *
Lycium chinenseRoot Bark-- 2610.0 0.77 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycium chinenseFruit-- 1060.0 -0.5 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit70.0 6000.0 1.79 *
Lycopersicon esculentumLeaf-- 4300.0 0.07 *
Lycopodium clavatumPlant-- 2340.0 -0.54 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lygodium japonicumPollen Or Spore-- 2270.0 *
Macadamia sppSeed1160.0 1190.0 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Magnolia kobusFlower-- 2120.0 -0.5 *
Magnolia fargesiiFlower-- 2120.0 -0.5 *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- 2120.0 -0.5 *
Magnolia officinalisBark-- 690.0 -0.72 *
Malpighia glabraFruit180.0 2095.0 -0.02 *
Malus domesticaFruit48.0 478.0 -0.76 *
Mangifera indicaFruit84.0 875.0 -0.58 *
Manihot esculentaRoot290.0 2100.0 -0.25 *
Medicago sativaPlant432.0 2300.0 -0.55 *
Mentha spicataLeaf630.0 4360.0 0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 5500.0 0.45 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- 2830.0 -0.38 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Mentha x piperitaLeaf985.0 6610.0 0.96 *
Momordica charantiaFruit195.0 3800.0 0.77 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Morinda spRoot-- 1200.0 -0.72 *
Moringa oleiferaShoot1470.0 6890.0 -0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaFruit450.0 3815.0 0.78 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morus albaRoot Bark2310.0 2450.0 0.55 *
Murraya spFruit355.0 1118.0 -0.47 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit355.0 1118.0 -0.47 *
Myrica ceriferaBark107.0 490.0 -0.86 *
Myristica fragransSeed1830.0 2030.0 -0.36 *
Myristica fragransAril-- 1630.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Nardostachys chinensisRhizome-- 2590.0 0.97 *
Nasturtium officinaleHerb210.0 4200.0 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed560.0 2650.0 -0.12 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome200.0 1215.0 -0.44 *
Nepeta catariaPlant248.0 2070.0 -0.62 *
Notopterygium incisumRhizome-- 2980.0 1.38 *
Nyssa sylvaticaStem300.0 4400.0 -0.15 *
Nyssa sylvaticaLeaf500.0 9100.0 1.92 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf4100.0 4340.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed4300.0 5300.0 0.93 *
Oenothera biennisHerb2700.0 3900.0 -0.73 *
Ophiopogon japonicusTuber390.0 410.0 -0.95 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 790.0 -0.85 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 1420.0 -1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Origanum majoranaPlant3300.0 3900.0 -0.05 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Origanum vulgarePlant2600.0 3016.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oryza sativaPlant1100.0 2200.0 -0.58 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber160.0 1475.0 -0.08 *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark930.0 1180.0 -1.21 *
Paeonia lactifloraRoot580.0 990.0 -0.84 *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark930.0 1180.0 -1.21 *
Panax japonicusRhizome-- 2400.0 0.78 *
Panax ginsengRoot102.0 481.0 -1.11 *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant980.0 2200.0 -0.58 *
Panicum maximumLeaf-- 4500.0 0.14 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Papaver somniferumSeed3148.0 15600.0 5.0 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot320.0 2000.0 -0.3 *
Passiflora incarnataFlower275.0 2500.0 -0.23 *
Pastinaca sativaRoot230.0 2100.0 -0.25 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 500.0 -1.1 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Perilla frutescensPlant-- 3830.0 -0.07 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Persea americanaFruit370.0 1740.0 -0.18 *
Petasites japonicusPt140.0 2545.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Petroselinum crispumPlant250.0 3160.0 -0.28 *
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit210.0 18000.0 7.35 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling210.0 2258.0 0.63 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed580.0 7000.0 1.6 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed510.0 3430.0 0.19 *
Phaseolus coccineusSeed-- 1780.0 -0.46 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed1500.0 1865.0 -0.43 *
Phellodendron amurenseBark-- 650.0 -0.75 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit325.0 790.0 -0.62 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit118.0 584.0 -0.72 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit310.0 1810.0 -0.15 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit230.0 2150.0 0.01 *
Phytelephas aequatorialisMesocarp320.0 1005.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Phytelephas aequatorialisFlower440.0 1505.0 -0.94 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Pimenta dioicaFruit1200.0 1480.0 -0.3 *
Pimpinella anisumFruit-- 1878.0 -0.12 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed-- 1878.0 -0.42 *
Pinellia ternataTuber560.0 710.0 -0.7 *
Pinus edulisSeed2180.0 2650.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus echinataShoot255.0 2100.0 -0.75 *
Piper nigrumFruit1809.0 2319.0 0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed949.0 1644.0 -0.51 *
Pisum sativumPlant2200.0 3700.0 -0.11 *
Pisum sativumFruit218.0 2591.0 0.21 *
Pisum sativumSeed319.0 1700.0 -0.49 *
Plantago psylliumSeed111.0 510.0 -0.96 *
Plantago asiaticaPlant-- 5320.0 0.39 *
Plantago majorSeed318.0 1060.0 -0.75 *
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot1250.0 1510.0 -0.56 *
Polygala tenuifoliaRoot-- 960.0 -0.85 *
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- 2340.0 -0.12 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polygonum multiflorumRhizome-- 890.0 -0.78 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Portulaca oleraceaHerb670.0 18700.0 1.41 *
Prunella vulgarisFlower-- 4560.0 1.26 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Prunus armeniacaFruit76.0 615.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus serotinaLeaf435.0 9600.0 2.11 *
Prunus persicaBark-- 4220.0 1.68 *
Prunus cerasusFruit90.0 648.0 -0.69 *
Prunus persicaSeed-- 3810.0 0.34 *
Prunus dulcisSeed2297.0 3126.0 0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaSeed-- 1750.0 -0.47 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Prunus serotinaStem28.0 5400.0 0.27 *
Prunus persicaFruit68.0 850.0 -0.59 *
Prunus domesticaFruit68.0 3400.0 0.59 *
Psidium guajavaFruit98.0 735.0 -0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit170.0 880.0 -0.58 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed340.0 2623.0 -0.13 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf80.0 346.0 -1.46 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 1400.0 -0.62 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pueraria montanaShoot800.0 850.0 -0.92 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pueraria pseudohirsutaRoot1470.0 3690.0 0.6 *
Pulsatilla chinensisRoot-- 3190.0 0.33 *
Punica granatumFruit-- 120.0 -0.93 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pyrus communisFruit54.0 1110.0 -0.47 *
Quercus velutinaStem235.0 6820.0 0.87 *
Quercus rubraSeed-- 500.0 -0.97 *
Quercus albaBark37.0 160.0 -1.08 *
Quercus stellataStem175.0 5880.0 0.47 *
Quercus phellosStem210.0 2940.0 -0.77 *
Quercus rubraStem200.0 8580.0 1.61 *
Quercus albaStem100.0 5320.0 0.23 *
Quisqualis indicaFruit-- 1040.0 -0.5 *
Raphanus sativusSeed-- 3960.0 0.4 *
Raphanus sativusRoot85.0 3570.0 0.54 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot-- 1190.0 -0.73 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt90.0 1975.0 -1.0 *
Rheum palmatumRhizome1980.0 2560.0 0.94 *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- 8800.0 1.8 *
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- 5930.0 0.58 *
Rhus copallinaLeaf405.0 9600.0 2.11 *
Rhus glabraStem147.0 4690.0 -0.03 *
Rhus copallinaStem375.0 4270.0 -0.21 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit86.0 938.0 -0.55 *
Ribes rubrumFruit122.0 935.0 -0.55 *
Ribes nigrumFruit220.0 1720.0 -0.19 *
Rosa laevigataFruit-- 2830.0 0.32 *
Rosa caninaFruit260.0 1390.0 -0.34 *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant2142.0 2483.0 -0.49 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf910.0 2825.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubia cordifoliaRoot-- 1870.0 -0.37 *
Rubus idaeusFruit175.0 1400.0 -0.34 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rubus chingiiFruit-- 2740.0 0.28 *
Rubus chamaemorusFruit270.0 1875.0 -0.12 *
Rubus idaeusLeaf539.0 3190.0 -0.36 *
Rumex crispusRoot822.0 3200.0 0.34 *
Rumex acetosaLeaf460.0 4600.0 0.18 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot707.0 2340.0 -0.12 *
Salix albaBark941.0 5600.0 2.63 *
Salvia officinalisLeaf444.0 2830.0 -0.5 *
Salvia miltiorrhizaRoot-- 3230.0 0.36 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Sambucus nigraFruit265.0 1635.0 -0.23 *
Santalum acuminatumFruit400.0 1715.0 -0.19 *
Sassafras albidumStem77.0 4760.0 -0.0 *
Sassafras albidumLeaf990.0 6800.0 1.03 *
Schisandra chinensisFruit414.0 2760.0 0.29 *
Schizonepeta tenuifoliaPlant-- 3390.0 -0.21 *
Scrophularia buergerianaRoot-- 2060.0 -0.27 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant155.0 1130.0 -0.91 *
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot7170.0 7220.0 2.48 *
Secale cerealeSeed1185.0 1740.0 -0.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit140.0 2000.0 -0.06 *
Sechium eduleLeaf670.0 3785.0 -0.13 *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- 2880.0 -0.03 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed2820.0 3220.0 0.11 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf1577.0 7770.0 1.41 *
Serenoa repensFruit510.0 3930.0 0.83 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sesamum indicumSeed3052.0 4082.0 0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Siegesbeckia orientalisPlant-- 2660.0 -0.44 *
Silybum marianumPlant-- 4030.0 -0.01 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Silybum marianumLeaf887.0 4030.0 -0.04 *
Simmondsia chinensisSeed-- 1410.0 -0.61 *
Sinapis albaSeed2863.0 3282.0 0.13 *
Sinomenium acutumRhizome-- 360.0 -1.32 *
Smilax sppRoot351.0 1670.0 -0.47 *
Smilax officinalisRoot351.0 1670.0 -0.47 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber190.0 4250.0 2.17 *
Solanum melongenaFruit85.0 1563.0 -0.26 *
Sophora subprostrataRoot-- 1880.0 -0.36 *
Sophora angustifoliaRoot2140.0 3720.0 0.62 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit190.0 1190.0 -0.44 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant420.0 11000.0 2.15 *
Spirulina spp.Plant-- 2550.0 -0.47 *
Spirulina pratensisPlant-- 2550.0 -0.47 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Spondias dulcisFruit48.0 240.0 -0.88 *
Spondias tuberosaFruit-- 90.0 -0.94 *
Spondias dulcisSeed-- 1200.0 -0.69 *
Stachys officinalisPlant185.0 1100.0 -0.92 *
Stellaria mediaPlant439.0 5290.0 0.38 *
Stevia rebaudianaPlant-- 2890.0 -0.37 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 3490.0 -0.25 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphoricarpos orbiculatusStem380.0 8800.0 1.7 *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 1700.0 -0.46 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinaleLeaf77.0 700.0 -1.32 *
Syzygium jambosFruit40.0 260.0 -0.87 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Syzygium aromaticumFlower2640.0 3020.0 0.15 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit350.0 2145.0 0.01 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Syzygium aromaticumFruit2640.0 3020.0 0.41 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark145.0 810.0 -0.64 *
Tamarindus indicaLeaf-- 710.0 -1.32 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indicaFruit920.0 1341.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- 2400.0 -0.52 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf360.0 2500.0 -0.63 *
Taraxacum mongolicumPlant-- 4050.0 -0.01 *
Taraxacum officinaleRoot225.0 1570.0 -0.53 *
Tephrosia purpureaLeaf-- 10300.0 2.38 *
Tetragonia tetragonioidesLeaf390.0 6500.0 0.92 *
Tetrapanax papyriferaPith-- 2120.0 1.0 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant1630.0 2992.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Thymus vulgarisLeaf733.0 4360.0 0.09 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot140.0 1000.0 -0.83 *
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit530.0 9815.0 3.56 *
Trifolium pratenseFlower628.0 3490.0 0.49 *
Trifolium pratenseHay2400.0 8100.0 1.0 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed157.0 1210.0 -0.69 *
Triticum aestivumSeed530.0 3500.0 0.22 *
Triticum aestivumPlant300.0 7000.0 0.91 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf428.0 2040.0 -0.81 *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 1080.0 -1.25 *
Ulmus rubraBark95.0 580.0 -0.8 *
Urtica dioicaFruit Juice-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaLeaf1720.0 8600.0 1.73 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit80.0 600.0 -0.71 *
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit48.0 332.0 -0.83 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit312.0 3900.0 0.82 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit240.0 2000.0 -0.06 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot375.0 3180.0 0.33 *
Valerianella locustaPlant3773.0 3798.0 -0.08 *
Valerianella radicataPlant2940.0 3226.0 -0.26 *
Verbascum thapsusLeaf1421.0 3230.0 -0.35 *
Viburnum opulusBark-- 3110.0 0.93 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vicia fabaSeed380.0 2000.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vicia fabaFruit330.0 2260.0 0.06 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna unguiculataSeed3141.0 3952.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed1777.0 2203.0 -0.29 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna mungoSeed1850.0 2076.0 -0.34 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot430.0 4207.0 -0.45 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed389.0 14400.0 4.53 *
Vigna unguiculataFruit374.0 4160.0 0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed1270.0 1467.0 -0.58 *
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling176.0 2560.0 1.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed2250.0 4962.0 0.8 *
Vigna unguiculataShoot430.0 4207.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Viscum albumLeaf-- 3110.0 -0.39 *
Vitis viniferaFruit58.0 2310.0 0.08 *
Vitis viniferaStem-- 4360.0 -0.17 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot270.0 2100.0 -0.25 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumLeaf510.0 3170.0 -0.37 *
Yucca baccataRoot106.0 510.0 -1.09 *
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- 1790.0 *
Zea maysSeed100.0 1600.0 -0.53 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot188.0 2690.0 0.07 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome430.0 2690.0 1.08 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit-- 620.0 -0.7 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.