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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit810.0 8100.0 1.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaSeed1750.0 1800.0 -1.4 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf3760.0 20170.0 1.66 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb10.0 6552.0 1.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1630.0 17435.0 1.04 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium cepaBulb560.0 6104.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Aloe veraLeaf-- 7748.0 -1.17 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1270.0 15278.0 0.55 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed8170.0 8311.0 -0.51 *
Ananas comosusFruit46.0 1852.0 -0.59 *
Anethum graveolensSeed10380.0 11242.0 -0.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensFruit10380.0 11242.0 1.85 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Annona muricataFruit600.0 3180.0 -0.24 *
Annona squamosaFruit550.0 2055.0 -0.53 *
Annona reticulataFruit370.0 1300.0 -0.73 *
Apium graveolensPt260.0 5410.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed9390.0 10627.0 -0.2 *
Arctium lappaRoot670.0 3350.0 -0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisFruit370.0 1258.0 -0.74 *
Artocarpus altilisSeed5700.0 13035.0 0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit339.0 3831.0 -0.07 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1450.0 18710.0 0.31 *
Avena sativaSeed2000.0 7000.0 -0.69 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant-- 14000.0 0.48 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit400.0 4400.0 0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf860.0 12465.0 -0.09 *
Benincasa hispidaFruit90.0 2305.0 -0.47 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed5410.0 5597.0 -0.88 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgarisRoot530.0 4180.0 0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed10130.0 14250.0 0.29 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf1970.0 12675.0 -0.04 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf750.0 12293.0 -0.13 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1410.0 15143.0 0.52 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf890.0 19019.0 1.4 *
Brassica rapaLeaf890.0 19019.0 1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaRoot360.0 4425.0 0.63 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf570.0 7621.0 -1.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower1070.0 13825.0 *
Brassica nigraLeaf1130.0 16642.0 0.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleraceaStem560.0 6222.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf1540.0 10996.0 -0.43 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot390.0 3770.0 0.03 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1410.0 15143.0 0.52 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed13750.0 17010.0 0.67 *
Calathea allouiaRoot3810.0 4190.0 0.42 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Capsicum annuumFruit380.0 5183.0 0.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum frutescensFruit890.0 7262.0 0.82 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit250.0 2238.0 -0.49 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed10310.0 11445.0 -0.09 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea dentataSeed2687.0 4784.0 -0.99 *
Castanea sativaSeed1189.0 2617.0 -1.28 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed2313.0 4116.0 -1.08 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 26320.0 1.93 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium albumSeed3540.0 22550.0 1.42 *
Cicer arietinumSeed12910.0 14595.0 0.34 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf630.0 10145.0 -0.62 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf350.0 7956.0 -1.12 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 8932.0 -0.43 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 7303.0 0.83 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus paradisiFruit160.0 1760.0 -0.61 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit140.0 1190.0 -0.76 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus sinensisFruit470.0 3548.0 -0.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulataFruit40.0 2579.0 -0.4 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf3040.0 15190.0 0.53 *
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaEndosperm-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed1470.0 2775.0 -1.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Colocasia esculentaLeaf2460.0 17155.0 0.98 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot670.0 2280.0 -1.34 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf1540.0 17825.0 1.13 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit220.0 5570.0 0.38 *
Cucurbita sppFruit650.0 10285.0 1.6 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed15580.0 21120.0 1.22 *
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed10130.0 33000.0 2.83 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit470.0 6429.0 0.6 *
Daucus carotaRoot400.0 3275.0 -0.42 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot520.0 2800.0 -0.86 *
Eryngium creticusShoot-- 3980.0 -1.35 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 7110.0 -0.68 *
Ficus caricaFruit300.0 1436.0 -0.69 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit250.0 2966.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed2060.0 5640.0 -0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxSeed24290.0 26560.0 1.96 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 4288.0 -0.81 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed9370.0 9900.0 -0.3 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- *
Ipomoea batatasRoot810.0 3280.0 -0.42 *
Juglans nigraSeed7210.0 7540.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinereaSeed7700.0 7966.0 -0.56 *
Juglans regiaSeed3880.0 4025.0 -1.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed190.0 18000.0 0.8 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf840.0 14000.0 0.26 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit210.0 4700.0 0.15 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling7120.0 23735.0 0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed19570.0 22035.0 1.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 5450.0 1.57 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumPlant-- 0.209 -1.26 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 2.5 -1.64 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lupinus albusSeed19330.0 21585.0 1.28 *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit20.0 5455.0 0.35 *
Macadamia sppSeed3240.0 3330.0 -1.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit20.0 746.0 -0.87 *
Mangifera indicaFruit410.0 3200.0 -0.24 *
Manihot esculentaRoot1000.0 3175.0 -0.52 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- *
Melia azedarachSeed-- -- *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit170.0 545.0 -0.92 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mentha x piperitaLeaf1610.0 7540.0 -1.21 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicataLeaf1410.0 9760.0 -0.71 *
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 149.0 -1.62 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot5370.0 25165.0 1.04 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriensSeed9700.0 20564.0 1.15 *
Murraya spFruit600.0 1728.0 -0.62 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit600.0 1728.0 -0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1340.0 26800.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed2640.0 8000.0 -0.56 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome940.0 4500.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed16200.0 20700.0 1.17 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 6180.0 -1.52 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed3100.0 3842.0 -1.12 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 6275.0 -0.79 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 6005.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaHay-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber510.0 4700.0 -0.71 *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant2080.0 2100.0 -0.99 *
Papaver somniferumSeed10990.0 11789.0 -0.04 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed7200.0 8150.0 -0.53 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 2984.0 -0.69 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit750.0 3653.0 -0.12 J. Ethnobiology.
Petroselinum crispumPlant2190.0 18724.0 1.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit880.0 9044.0 1.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling2390.0 25700.0 0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed4520.0 19010.0 0.94 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed17800.0 19400.0 0.99 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed14830.0 16667.0 0.62 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit30.0 2450.0 -0.43 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit170.0 1168.0 -0.76 *
Pinus edulisSeed4340.0 4615.0 -1.01 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed9010.0 9655.0 -0.33 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia veraSeed12780.0 13295.0 0.16 *
Pisum sativumFruit2020.0 19980.0 4.11 *
Pisum sativumSeed3170.0 14995.0 0.39 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb650.0 13200.0 -1.0 *
Pouteria campechianaFruit840.0 2130.0 -0.51 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pouteria caimitoFruit-- 3160.0 -0.25 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus persicaFruit230.0 1863.0 -0.58 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit970.0 7105.0 0.77 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus dulcisSeed6660.0 6966.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit170.0 1149.0 -0.77 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit160.0 825.0 -0.85 *
Psidium guajavaFruit230.0 1656.0 -0.64 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed21360.0 23304.0 1.52 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf2280.0 9849.0 -0.69 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber5920.0 13897.0 1.68 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 2743.0 -0.91 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit140.0 865.0 -0.84 *
Raphanus sativusRoot350.0 6785.0 2.8 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot2000.0 4000.0 0.24 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf1430.0 4435.0 -1.92 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisPlant260.0 1287.0 -1.1 *
Santalum albumFruit-- -- *
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed6050.0 6795.0 -0.72 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit430.0 6145.0 0.53 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 9500.0 -0.35 *
Sesamum indicumSeed2890.0 8729.0 -0.46 *
Sinapis albaSeed15190.0 16252.0 0.56 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber1260.0 6800.0 -0.16 *
Solanum melongenaFruit510.0 6320.0 0.57 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant1740.0 20664.0 1.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaFruit1390.0 2026.0 -0.54 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Theobroma cacaoSeed-- 800.0 -1.53 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgarisPlant2070.0 2236.0 -0.98 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed15310.0 18525.0 0.87 *
Triticum aestivumPlant15000.0 18000.0 0.98 *
Triticum aestivumSeed2000.0 9000.0 -0.42 *
Tulipa gesnerianaStem-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit120.0 780.0 -0.86 *
Valerianella locustaPlant1010.0 14025.0 0.49 *
Vicia fabaSeed3660.0 19265.0 0.97 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit1840.0 15144.0 2.86 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed14970.0 17294.0 0.7 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed1940.0 18069.0 0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1666.0 17437.0 -1.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed12480.0 13818.0 0.23 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed16460.0 17975.0 0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed16640.0 18296.0 0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis viniferaFruit150.0 772.0 -0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed1370.0 5699.0 -0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome570.0 3110.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot570.0 3110.0 -0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.