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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesianaFlower-- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Acacia farnesianaPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Anethum graveolensSeed-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Bursera delpechianaWood10200.0 56400.0 *
Chrysanthemum x morifoliumPlant6.0 23.0 -0.57 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum camphoraLeaf48.0 14400.0 2.05 *
Cinnamomum verumLeaf-- 245.0 -0.47 Mallavarupu, G. R. et al. 1995. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flav. & Fragr. J., 10: 239-242.
Cinnamomum verumBark-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus limonEssential Oil-- -- *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus aurantiumLeaf4429.0 5500.0 0.46 Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Citrus medicaPericarp-- -- *
Citrus aurantiumFlower80.0 520.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coleus barbatusStem Essent. Oil-- 8100.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatusLeaf Essent. Oil-- 8100.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon winterianusPlant80.0 140.0 -0.51 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon nardusPlant24.0 96.0 -0.53 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Elettaria cardamomumPlant1197.0 8000.0 3.27 *
Elettaria cardamomumFruit1197.0 8000.0 *
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.51 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blandaShoot-- 14.0 -0.27 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachyaLeaf-- -- -0.51 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Ferula gummosaPlant-- -- *
Ficus caricaLeaf-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Gardenia jasminoidesFlower-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hedeoma pulegioidesPlant36.0 180.0 -0.49 *
Helianthus annuusFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Jasminum officinaleFlower186.0 285.0 -0.49 *
Juniperus communisPlant-- -- *
Lavandula x intermediaPlant2170.0 3950.0 1.32 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x hybridaShoot0.5 3.5 -0.34 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Lavandula latifoliaPlant1.0 198.0 -0.48 *
Lavandula spShoot-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lavandula angustifoliaFlower240.0 16500.0 2.0 *
Melia azedarachWood-- -- *
Mentha aquaticaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Micromeria thymifoliaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.51 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria myrtifoliaShoot-- 0.2 -0.36 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Micromeria julianaLeaf-- 10.0 -0.51 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria croaticaLeaf-- 140.0 -0.49 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Monarda clinopodiaPlant-- 4050.0 1.37 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda punctataPlant49.0 378.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaLeaf-- -- Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Monarda citriodoraPlant-- 24.0 -0.57 *
Monarda mediaPlant-- 69.0 -0.54 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaFlower-- 4.0 -0.53 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Monarda russelianaPlant-- 557.0 -0.31 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didymaPlant50.0 505.0 -0.34 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myrtus communisPlant18.0 28.0 -0.56 *
Ocimum basilicumPlant15.0 240.0 -0.46 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ocimum suaveShoot-- -- J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Origanum vulgarePlant8.0 184.0 -0.49 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 50.0 -0.55 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 7.0 -0.57 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum onitesShoot-- -- -0.37 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum vulgarePlant-- 15.0 -0.57 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum majoranaPlant3.0 3030.0 0.88 *
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunella vulgarisEssential Oil-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisPlant-- 210.0 -0.48 *
Pycnanthemum flexuosumShoot-- 612.0 3.93 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosmarinus officinalisShoot-- 4.0 -0.34 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Salvia sclareaPlant1.0 3750.0 1.23 *
Salvia officinalisPlant-- 6048.0 2.33 *
Satureja obovataLeaf-- -- Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 55.0 -0.5 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja subspicataPlant-- 15.0 -0.57 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 55.0 -0.5 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovataLeaf-- 230.0 -0.47 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja montanaPlant3.0 240.0 -0.46 *
Skimmia arborescensLeaf2300.0 16800.0 2.47 *
Tagetes minutaPlant34.0 125.0 -0.52 *
Tagetes erectaPlant-- 61.0 -0.55 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tagetes patulaPlant-- 262.0 -0.45 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium asiaticumShoot-- 6.25 -0.32 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 0.12 -0.37 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium scorodoniaShoot-- 0.35 -0.36 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium salviastrumShoot-- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepisShoot-- 0.06 -0.37 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium pseudoscorodoniaShoot-- 0.14 -0.36 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Thymus x citriodorusPlant-- -- -0.58 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 100.0 0.34 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Thymus broussonettiiShoot-- 60.0 0.06 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus mastichinaPlant100.0 150.0 -0.51 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 18.0 -0.24 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus vulgarisPlant15.0 4680.0 1.67 *
Thymus capitatusShoot-- -- -0.37 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus saturejoidesShoot-- 50.0 -0.02 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus zygisShoot-- 18.0 -0.24 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus serpyllumPlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- 14.0 -0.53 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Zanthoxylum alatumLeaf-- 45.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zanthoxylum alatumFruit-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.