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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit1050.0 10500.0 1.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesianaSeed3700.0 3750.0 -1.28 Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Acacia farnesianaLeaf6000.0 32190.0 2.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf-- -- *
Allium cepaBulb410.0 4469.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf1670.0 20875.0 0.67 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasumPlant-- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.3 7392.0 1.0 *
Aloe veraLeaf-- 6952.0 -1.47 *
Alpinia galangaLeaf-- -- *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf1950.0 23458.0 1.07 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed12850.0 13072.0 -0.38 *
Ananas comosusFruit24.0 1407.0 -0.79 *
Anethum graveolensSeed9250.0 10018.0 -0.68 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolensFruit9250.0 10018.0 1.05 *
Angelica sinensisRoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolensPt310.0 6530.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaeaSeed16960.0 20653.0 0.34 *
Arctium lappaRoot320.0 1600.0 -1.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculusShoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusRoot-- -- *
Artemisia dracunculusLeaf-- -- *
Artocarpus altilisFruit650.0 2210.0 -0.61 *
Artocarpus altilisSeed5630.0 12875.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina trilobaFruit466.0 5002.0 -0.02 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot1330.0 17161.0 0.09 *
Avena sativaSeed6000.0 14000.0 -0.29 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant-- 18000.0 0.49 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambolaFruit400.0 4400.0 -0.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella albaLeaf1010.0 14640.0 -0.29 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed11870.0 12281.0 -0.46 *
Beta vulgarisRoot630.0 4968.0 0.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bixa orellanaSeed6340.0 8140.0 -0.86 *
Borago officinalisLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleraceaStem670.0 7445.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf630.0 8423.0 -1.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf760.0 11192.0 -0.82 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapaLeaf880.0 18806.0 0.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf2310.0 14865.0 -0.25 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf1520.0 10853.0 -0.87 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot380.0 3675.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower1160.0 15000.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf970.0 15900.0 -0.09 *
Brassica rapaRoot330.0 4060.0 -0.17 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf1310.0 14069.0 -0.38 *
Brassica chinensisLeaf880.0 18806.0 0.35 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf1310.0 14069.0 -0.38 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cajanus cajanSeed13110.0 17325.0 0.02 *
Calathea allouiaRoot4440.0 4885.0 0.31 *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant-- -- *
Capsicum frutescensFruit1050.0 8568.0 0.74 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuumFruit440.0 6002.0 0.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papayaFruit160.0 1432.0 -0.78 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carviSeed12180.0 13520.0 -0.34 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea dentataSeed2987.0 5335.0 -1.12 *
Castanea sativaSeed1144.0 2518.0 -1.39 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed2701.0 4807.0 -1.17 *
Ceratonia siliquaSeed-- 30550.0 1.29 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium ambrosioidesPlant-- -- *
Chenopodium albumLeaf3500.0 22295.0 0.89 *
Cicer arietinumSeed11520.0 15530.0 -0.15 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf390.0 8976.0 -1.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf980.0 15781.0 -0.11 *
Citrullus lanatusFruit-- 2120.0 -0.63 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 21100.0 0.38 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus sinensisFruit230.0 1136.0 -0.84 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulataFruit50.0 1290.0 -0.81 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf3600.0 17980.0 0.23 *
Cocos nuciferaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nuciferaSeed2470.0 4660.0 -1.19 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Colocasia esculentaRoot1110.0 3780.0 -0.33 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf3920.0 27335.0 1.67 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf2470.0 31580.0 2.32 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit-- -- *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf-- -- *
Crocus sativusBulb-- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonicaRoot-- -- *
Cucumis sativusFruit230.0 5822.0 0.15 *
Cucurbita pepoFruit460.0 5476.0 0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita foetidissimaSeed14120.0 67000.0 4.78 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Cucurbita sppFruit690.0 10920.0 1.24 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed20790.0 35835.0 1.8 *
Daucus carotaRoot430.0 3520.0 -0.48 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot840.0 4525.0 0.1 *
Eryngium creticusShoot-- 9470.0 -0.47 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed-- 8140.0 -0.86 *
Ficus caricaFruit330.0 1580.0 -0.75 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria sppFruit310.0 3667.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo bilobaSeed3160.0 8620.0 -0.81 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxSeed29720.0 32500.0 1.48 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 4384.0 -0.77 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuusSeed16590.0 35500.0 1.76 *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Huperzia sppPlant-- -- *
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- *
Ipomoea batatasRoot890.0 4455.0 0.06 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf1460.0 19390.0 0.44 *
Juglans regiaSeed9920.0 10295.0 -0.65 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinereaSeed21990.0 22750.0 0.54 *
Juglans nigraSeed17040.0 17815.0 0.07 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureusSeed1450.0 22355.0 0.5 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf790.0 13167.0 -0.52 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit360.0 8070.0 0.63 *
Larrea tridentataPlant-- 7800.0 -0.6 *
Lens culinarisSeed20340.0 22900.0 0.56 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling6280.0 20935.0 -0.49 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodesFruit-- -- *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 9100.0 2.75 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimumSeed-- 0.316 -1.63 *
Lupinus albusSeed19000.0 30625.0 1.3 *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit330.0 5455.0 0.08 *
Macadamia sppSeed4620.0 4750.0 -1.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domesticaFruit120.0 746.0 -0.93 *
Mangifera indicaFruit310.0 2950.0 -0.46 *
Manihot esculentaRoot900.0 2860.0 -0.87 *
Medicago sativaPlant-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Melia azedarachSeed-- -- *
Mentha spicataLeaf2470.0 17095.0 0.09 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf2810.0 13160.0 -0.52 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantiaSeed-- 41.6 -1.63 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleiferaShoot7910.0 37065.0 1.55 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morus albaLeaf-- -- *
Mucuna pruriensSeed11875.0 25175.0 0.77 *
Murraya spFruit590.0 1699.0 -0.72 *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit590.0 1699.0 -0.72 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrciaria dubiaFruit-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Nasturtium officinaleHerb1660.0 33200.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed3260.0 9879.0 -0.69 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome690.0 3300.0 -1.0 *
Nigella sativaSeed23130.0 29595.0 1.2 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- 10780.0 -0.88 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennisSeed8700.0 10780.0 -0.6 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaBud-- 7040.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 12800.0 -0.41 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativaHay-- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber480.0 4425.0 -0.76 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant420.0 1530.0 -1.27 *
Papaver somniferumSeed14840.0 15919.0 -0.11 *
Papaver bracteatumSeed11500.0 13550.0 -0.34 *
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 3366.0 -0.57 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americanaFruit990.0 4780.0 -0.07 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling3020.0 32473.0 1.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatusSeed5380.0 20595.0 0.34 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed17250.0 19386.0 0.22 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit1120.0 11511.0 1.36 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed21700.0 23655.0 0.63 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit5.0 1140.0 -0.84 *
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit219.0 1084.0 -0.85 *
Pinus edulisSeed8340.0 8865.0 -0.79 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pineaSeed17300.0 20600.0 0.34 *
Pistacia veraSeed16770.0 17445.0 0.03 *
Pisum sativumShoot-- 35.0 -1.17 *
Pisum sativumSeed3230.0 15279.0 -0.17 *
Pisum sativumFruit2280.0 22552.0 3.71 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb880.0 19900.0 -1.0 *
Prunus cerasusFruit-- -- *
Prunus persicaFruit400.0 3240.0 -0.4 *
Prunus dulcisSeed15520.0 16234.0 -0.08 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniacaFruit770.0 5640.0 0.11 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domesticaFruit210.0 1419.0 -0.78 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium guajavaFruit550.0 3960.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianumFruit390.0 2015.0 -0.66 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf3590.0 15508.0 -0.15 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber6400.0 15023.0 1.68 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed24970.0 27242.0 0.97 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 2448.0 -1.11 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communisFruit200.0 1235.0 -0.82 *
Raphanus sativusRoot370.0 7170.0 1.63 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot2000.0 5000.0 0.37 *
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- 28.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf2490.0 7725.0 -1.35 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus canadensisFruit600.0 2970.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot-- -- *
Secale cerealeSeed9800.0 11000.0 -0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium eduleFruit840.0 12000.0 1.47 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed-- 10900.0 -0.59 *
Sesamum indicumSeed4430.0 22586.0 0.53 *
Silybum marianumSeed-- -- *
Sinapis albaSeed17830.0 19078.0 0.19 *
Solanum tuberosumTuber1240.0 7100.0 -0.15 *
Solanum melongenaFruit570.0 8550.0 0.73 *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant2230.0 26483.0 1.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalisShoot-- -- *
Theobroma cacaoPlant-- 4500.0 -0.95 *
Thymus vulgarisPlant4300.0 4644.0 -0.94 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tilia sp.Flower-- -- *
Trifolium pratensePlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed16160.0 19327.0 0.21 *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Triticum aestivumSeed8000.0 18000.0 0.09 *
Triticum aestivumPlant20000.0 26000.0 1.34 *
Urtica dioicaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit400.0 2600.0 -0.53 *
Valeriana officinalisRhizome-- -- *
Valerianella locustaPlant1330.0 18470.0 0.54 *
Vicia fabaSeed4320.0 22735.0 0.54 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataSeed2111.0 20466.0 0.32 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling1750.0 18382.0 -0.91 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed15410.0 17062.0 -0.0 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed18640.0 20356.0 0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed18470.0 20308.0 0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataFruit2000.0 16461.0 2.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed16680.0 19270.0 0.21 *
Vitellaria paradoxaSeed-- 7225.0 -0.94 *
Vitis viniferaFruit140.0 720.0 -0.93 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea maysSeed3480.0 14477.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRoot740.0 4257.0 -0.06 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinaleRhizome740.0 4257.0 1.0 *
Zingiber officinaleTuber-- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.