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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus moschatusFlower-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Abutilon theophrastiLeaf-- -- Matlawska, I. 1990. Investigation of Flavonoid Compounds of Selected Species from Malvaceae Family. Herba Pol., 36(3): 65-69.
Abutilon theophrastiFlower-- -- Matlawska, I. 1990. Investigation of Flavonoid Compounds of Selected Species from Malvaceae Family. Herba Pol., 36(3): 65-69.
Acacia catechuPlant-- -- *
Acacia farnesianaFruit-- -- *
Acacia senegalPlant-- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesianaPlant-- -- *
Acalypha indicaPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Acinos suaveolensShoot-- 16.6 -0.61 Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumBud-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanumSeed-- -- *
Ageratum conyzoidesPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Agrimonia eupatoriaShoot-- 24.0 -0.34 *
Albizia lebbeckLeaf-- -- Wealth of India.
Allium cepaBulb-- 2.0 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf16.0 55.0 -0.48 *
Allium sativum var. sativumPlant-- -- *
Alpinia officinarumRhizome-- -- *
Althaea officinalisLeaf-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Althaea officinalisRoot-- -- *
Ammi visnagaPlant-- -- *
Anemone pulsatillaLeaf-- -- *
Anethum graveolensFruit-- -- *
Anethum graveolensSeed-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Apium graveolensLeaf-- -- -0.76 *
Armoracia rusticanaLeaf-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Armoracia rusticanaRoot-- 6.0 *
Artemisia annuaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia annuaShoot-- -- Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands.
Asparagus officinalisRoot-- -- *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Azadirachta indicaFlower-- 2000.0 1.33 *
Berberis vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Beta vulgarisPlant-- -- *
Borago officinalisPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf100.0 300.0 0.77 Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower-- 30.0 -1.08 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf-- -- *
Brassica oleraceaShoot-- 80.0 1.71 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf-- 13.0 -0.69 *
Calendula officinalisPlant-- -- *
Camellia sinensisShoot-- -- *
Camellia sinensisPlant-- -- *
Camellia sinensisLeaf-- 520.0 1.89 *
Capsicum frutescensAnther-- -- *
Carum carviLeaf-- -- *
Carum carviSeed-- -- *
Carum carviFlower-- -- *
Castanea sativaLeaf-- -- *
Catharanthus roseusPlant-- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ceiba pentandraFlower-- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Centaurea cyanusPlant-- -- Wealth of India.
Centaurea cyanusShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Centella asiaticaPlant-- -- *
Centella asiaticaLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Chimaphila umbellataPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cichorium intybusSeed-- 20.0 *
Cichorium intybusPlant-- -- *
Cinnamomum camphoraPlant-- -- *
Citrus paradisiFruit-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cola acuminataPlant-- -- *
Consolida ajacisFlower-- -- *
Cornus floridaFlower-- -- *
Cornus masLeaf-- -- Bate-Smith, E. C., Ferguson, I. K., Hutson, K., Jensen, S. R., Nielsen, B. J., Swain, T. 1975. Phytochemical Interrelationships in the Cornaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 3: 79.
Corylus avellanaBark-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaInflorescence-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaLeaf-- -- *
Crataegus monogynaFlower-- -- *
Crocus sativusFlower-- -- *
Cucurbita pepoLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuscuta reflexaPlant-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaFruit-- -- Daniel, M. 1989. Polyphenols of Some Indian Vegetables. Curr Sci, 58(23): 1332-1334.
Daucus carotaSeed-- -- *
Diospyros virginianaPlant-- -- *
Dodonaea viscosaPlant-- -- *
Drimys winteriLeaf-- -- *
Echinacea angustifoliaLeaf-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Echinacea sppLeaf-- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Elaeagnus angustifoliaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ephedra sinicaShoot-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Equisetum arvensePlant-- -- *
Eriobotrya japonicaPlant-- -- *
Erythroxylum cocaPlant-- -- *
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant-- -- *
Euphorbia hirtaLeaf-- -- *
Euphorbia lathyrisLeaf-- -- *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Ficus caricaPlant-- -- *
Filipendula ulmariaFlower-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Foeniculum vulgareLeaf-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgarePlant-- -- *
Fragaria sppLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Frangula alnusSeed-- -- *
Galega officinalisShoot-- -- *
Geranium thunbergiiLeaf-- -- *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf-- -- *
Glycine maxLeaf-- -- *
Glycine maxPlant-- -- *
Glycine maxSeed-- -- *
Glycine maxShoot-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot-- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabraShoot-- -- *
Gossypium spFlower-- -- *
Guazuma tomentosaFlower-- -- *
Hamamelis virginianaLeaf-- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Harpagophytum procumbensTuber-- -- *
Helianthemum glomeratumLeaf-- -- Meckes, M., Calzada, F., Tapia-Contreras, A., Cedillo-Rivera, R. 1999. Antiprotozoal Properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13(2): 102-105.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Holarrhena pubescensLeaf-- -- *
Humulus lupulusLeaf-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Hura crepitansLeaf-- -- *
Hydrangea arborescensRoot-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Hypericum perforatumPlant-- -- *
Isatis tinctoriaPlant-- -- *
Juglans regiaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Kalanchoe spathulataLeaf-- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnataLeaf-- -- *
Lactuca sativaPlant-- -- *
Laurus nobilisPlant-- -- *
Ligustrum japonicumFlower-- -- *
Lycium chinenseLeaf-- -- Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lycopersicon esculentumSeed-- -- *
Maclura pomiferaFruit-- 10000.0 1.73 *
Maclura pomiferaBark-- 29.0 *
Maclura pomiferaWood-- -- Smith, J. L. and Perino, J. V. 1981. Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): History and Economic Uses. Economic Botany 35(1): 24-41
Magnolia officinalisPlant-- -- *
Magnolia kobusPlant-- -- *
Magnolia denudataPlant-- -- *
Malus domesticaFruit-- 2.0 -0.58 *
Mangifera indicaPlant-- -- *
Matricaria recutitaPlant-- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Medicago sativaFlower-- -- *
Melaleuca leucadendraPlant-- -- *
Melia azedarachPlant-- -- *
Melilotus officinalisFlower-- -- *
Melilotus officinalisShoot-- 12.5 -0.76 *
Melilotus officinalisLeaf-- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Menyanthes trifoliataPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Moringa oleiferaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Moringa oleiferaFlower-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Morus albaWood-- -- *
Musa x paradisiacaFruit-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Musa x paradisiacaPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Myristica fragransPlant-- -- *
Nelumbo nuciferaPlant-- -- *
Nicotiana tabacumLeaf-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicumLeaf-- -- *
Oenothera biennisLeaf-- -- *
Olea europaeaStem-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Ononis spinosaShoot-- -- Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Opuntia ficus-indicaPt-- -- *
Opuntia ficus-indicaFlower-- -- *
Origanum vulgarePlant-- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Paeonia moutanLeaf-- -- *
Paeonia lactifloraLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia officinalisFlower-- -- Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Paeonia suffruticosaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax ginsengShoot-- -- *
Passiflora incarnataPlant-- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Pastinaca sativaSeed-- -- *
Petasites japonicusPlant-- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Petroselinum crispumPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Phyllanthus emblicaLeaf-- -- *
Physalis peruvianaFruit-- -- *
Pinus mugoWood-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Piper nigrumFruit-- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Pistacia lentiscusLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pisum sativumTissue Culture-- 500.0 *
Plumeria acutifoliaFlower-- -- *
Podophyllum peltatumRhizome-- -- *
Podophyllum pleianthumRhizome-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Podophyllum hexandrumRhizome-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Polygonum hydropiperPlant-- -- *
Polygonum hydropiperoidesPlant-- -- *
Populus tacamahaccaPlant-- -- *
Prunella vulgarisFlower-- -- *
Prunus dulcisPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaLeaf-- -- *
Prunus serotinaPlant-- -- *
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- -- *
Prunus persicaLeaf-- -- *
Prunus domesticaWood-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus laurocerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus cerasusPlant-- -- *
Prunus spinosaFlower-- -- *
Psidium cattleianumPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumPericarp-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Punica granatumPlant-- -- *
Punica granatumFruit-- -- Seeram, N. P., Schulman, R. N., and Heber, D., eds. 2006. Pomegranates - Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, FL. 244 pp.
Punica granatumLeaf-- -- *
Rhododendron dauricumPlant-- -- *
Rhus toxicodendronPlant-- -- *
Ribes nigrumFruit-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ribes nigrumFruit Juice-- -- *
Ricinus communisPlant-- -- *
Robinia pseudoacaciaFlower-- -- *
Rosa damascenaPlant-- -- *
Rubus idaeusJuice-- -- *
Sambucus nigraFlower-- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalisPlant-- -- *
Sanguisorba minorPlant-- -- *
Schinus molleLeaf-- -- *
Schinus terebinthifoliusLeaf-- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Serenoa repensFruit-- -- By assumption; if a glycoside is reported, it is automatically assumed that the aglycone is present also in the plant, though sometimes in traces only.
Silybum marianumFlower-- -- *
Silybum marianumSeed-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Solanum tuberosumFlower-- -- *
Solidago giganteaFlower-- -- *
Sophora japonicaPlant-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant-- -- *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- 2.0 -0.74 *
Syzygium aromaticumFlower-- -- *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit-- 29.0 -0.57 *
Tagetes patulaPlant-- -- *
Tagetes erectaLeaf-- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Terminalia catappaLeaf-- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium poliumPlant-- -- Abstract (See species file)
Theobroma cacaoLeaf-- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Thespesia populneaFlower-- 700.0 -0.26 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thevetia peruvianaPlant-- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Thymus vulgarisPlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Tribulus terrestrisFlower-- -- *
Trifolium pratenseLeaf-- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumFlower-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumPlant-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumLeaf-- -- *
Tsuga canadensisBranches-- -- *
Uncaria guianensisLeaf-- -- *
Urtica dioicaInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Urtica dioicaPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit-- -- *
Valeriana officinalisPlant-- -- *
Viburnum opulusLeaf-- -- *
Vicia fabaShoot-- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling-- -- *
Viola odorataPlant-- -- *
Vitex agnus-castusPlant-- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Vitis viniferaFruit-- 2.0 -0.58 *
Vitis viniferaLeaf-- -- *
Zingiber officinalePlant-- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.