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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus manihotLeaf33.0 284.0 -0.2 *
Abelmoschus esculentusFruit8.0 150.0 0.07 *
Acacia farnesianaLeaf37.0 199.0 -0.42 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Acalypha indicaLeaf170.0 885.0 1.32 Wealth of India.
Acanthopanax gracilistylisRoot Bark-- 250.0 -0.13 *
Achillea millefoliumPlant-- -- *
Achyranthes bidentataRoot150.0 180.0 -0.18 *
Aconitum carmichaeliiTuber-- 310.0 1.59 *
Acorus calamusRhizome-- 350.0 -0.03 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Actaea racemosaRoot-- 38.0 -0.39 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actaea dahuricaRhizome-- 680.0 0.97 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Actinidia chinensisFruit3.0 30.0 -0.41 *
Aegle marmelosFruit6.0 15.0 -0.47 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Agathosma betulinaLeaf-- 867.0 1.28 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Akebia quinataStem-- 150.0 -0.55 *
Albizia julibrissinBark-- 100.0 -0.46 *
Albizia lebbeckSeed-- 115.0 -0.17 Wealth of India.
Aleurites moluccanaSeed20.0 22.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Alisma plantago-aquaticaRhizome95.0 110.0 -0.75 *
Allium sativum var. sativumShoot17.0 76.0 -0.57 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb8.0 129.0 0.63 *
Allium ampeloprasumRoot11.0 80.0 -0.33 *
Allium sativum var. sativumRoot1.0 3.0 -0.44 *
Allium sativum var. sativumLeaf6.0 44.0 -0.81 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepaSeed-- 235.0 0.39 *
Allium ampeloprasumLeaf11.0 255.0 -0.27 *
Allium schoenoprasumLeaf8.0 200.0 -0.41 *
Allium sativum var. sativumFlower9.0 78.0 -0.59 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepaLeaf34.0 436.0 0.18 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepaBulb2.0 135.0 0.78 *
Allium ampeloprasumFlower9.0 53.0 -0.75 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaLeaf6.0 38.0 -0.82 *
Alocasia macrorrhizaRoot5.0 63.0 -0.35 *
Aloe veraLeaf30.0 300.0 -0.16 Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Aloe spp.Leaf-- 4.1 -0.91 *
Alpinia galangaRhizome21.0 149.0 -0.63 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Althaea officinalisRoot12.0 115.0 -0.27 *
Amaranthus spinosusLeaf22.0 1965.0 4.06 *
Amaranthus sp.Leaf23.0 1527.0 2.95 *
Amomum xanthioidesSeed-- 910.0 3.53 *
Amorphophallus konjacRoot-- -- *
Amorphophallus konjacLeaf3.0 115.0 -0.63 *
Amorphophallus campanulatusRoot5.0 112.0 -0.28 *
Amphicarpaea bracteataShoot-- 360.0 -0.19 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed18.0 195.0 0.21 *
Anacardium occidentaleFruit2.0 77.0 -0.22 *
Ananas comosusFruit3.0 73.0 -0.24 *
Anemarrhena asphodeloidesRhizome90.0 1400.0 3.14 *
Anethum graveolensPlant23.0 755.0 0.15 *
Anethum graveolensFruit114.0 230.0 0.38 *
Anethum graveolensSeed114.0 230.0 0.37 *
Anethum graveolensLeaf-- -- *
Angelica sinensisRoot19.4 88.0 -0.31 *
Angelica laxifloraRoot-- 230.0 -0.11 *
Angelica dahuricaRoot-- 1800.0 2.17 *
Annona muricataFruit5.0 33.0 -0.4 *
Annona glabraFruit23.0 175.0 0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona squamosaFruit6.0 66.0 -0.27 *
Annona cherimolaSeed210.0 270.0 0.55 *
Annona diversifoliaFruit7.0 25.0 -0.43 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Annona reticulataFruit4.0 47.0 -0.34 *
Annona cherimolaFruit2.0 26.0 -0.42 *
Anthriscus cerefoliumLeaf320.0 345.0 -0.05 *
Apium graveolensSeed25.0 571.0 1.95 *
Apium graveolensRoot3.6 47.0 -0.37 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Apium graveolensFruit25.0 120.0 -0.05 *
Apium graveolensPt3.0 347.0 1.29 *
Arachis hypogaeaSeed21.0 42.0 -0.51 *
Arachis hypogaeaLeaf42.0 195.0 -0.43 *
Aralia cordataLeaf3.0 64.0 -0.76 *
Arctium lappaRoot35.0 147.0 -0.23 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiLeaf12.0 105.0 -0.65 *
Areca catechuSeed15.0 70.0 -0.38 *
Areca catechuShoot20.0 147.0 -0.47 *
Arisaema consanguineumRhizome-- 600.0 0.73 *
Aristolochia debilisFruit-- 190.0 0.23 *
Armoracia rusticanaRoot1.4 8.0 -0.43 *
Arracacia xanthorrhizaRoot9.0 31.0 -0.4 *
Artemisia vulgarisLeaf15.0 118.0 -0.62 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artemisia capillarisPlant-- 200.0 -0.5 *
Artemisia herba-albaPlant710.0 820.0 0.23 *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant1200.0 3900.0 3.85 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Artemisia dracunculusPlant320.0 350.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artocarpus altilisSeed37.0 58.0 -0.43 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Artocarpus altilisFruit3.0 62.0 -0.28 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusSeed12.0 25.0 -0.58 *
Artocarpus heterophyllusFruit5.0 22.0 -0.44 *
Asiasarum heterotropoidesRoot450.0 2800.0 3.63 *
Asiasarum sieboldiiRoot450.0 2800.0 3.63 *
Asimina trilobaFruit68.0 308.0 0.69 *
Aspalathus linearisPlant-- 14.0 -0.72 *
Aspalathus linearisShoot-- 3300.0 3.75 *
Asparagus lucidusRoot-- 30.0 -0.4 *
Asparagus officinalisRoot1.2 12.0 -0.42 *
Asparagus officinalisShoot6.0 240.0 -0.35 *
Astragalus membranaceusRoot3.2 20.0 -0.41 *
Atractylodes lanceaRhizome-- 290.0 -0.21 *
Atractylodes ovataRhizome210.0 780.0 1.27 *
Avena sativaSeed20.0 300.0 0.69 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativaPlant3.0 13.5 -0.72 *
Averrhoa bilimbiFruit6.0 175.0 0.17 *
Averrhoa carambolaFruit1.0 165.0 0.13 *
Bacopa monnieriShoot-- 78.0 -0.56 Wealth of India.
Bactris gasipaesFruit6.0 45.0 -0.35 *
Barosma betulinaLeaf-- 867.0 1.28 *
Basella albaLeaf12.0 175.0 -0.48 *
Belamcanda chinensisRhizome-- 150.0 -0.63 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Benincasa hispidaFruit4.0 125.0 -0.03 *
Berberis vulgarisRoot-- 141.0 -0.24 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Berberis vulgarisBark-- 141.0 -0.27 *
Bertholletia excelsaSeed30.0 93.0 -0.27 *
Beta vulgarisRoot5.0 165.0 -0.2 *
Beta vulgarisLeaf7.0 392.0 0.07 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Bixa orellanaFruit8.0 56.0 -0.31 *
Bixa orellanaSeed42.0 56.0 -0.44 *
Blechnum orientaleRhizome-- 70.0 -0.87 *
Bletilla striataTuber-- 100.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Blighia sapidaSeed17.0 173.0 0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Blighia sapidaAril27.0 130.0 0.61 *
Boehmeria niveaLeaf16.0 123.0 -0.61 *
Boehmeria niveaPlant1500.0 3500.0 3.38 *
Borago officinalisLeaf33.0 472.0 0.28 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica nigraLeaf12.0 209.0 -0.39 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensisLeaf8.0 171.0 -0.49 *
Brassica rapaRoot2.0 37.0 -0.39 *
Brassica oleraceaStem4.0 44.0 -0.65 *
Brassica oleracea var. italicaLeaf8.0 109.0 -0.64 *
Brassica rapaLeaf8.0 171.0 -0.49 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaLeaf9.0 136.0 -0.58 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassicaRoot2.0 62.0 -0.35 *
Brassica rapaSeed-- 93.0 -0.27 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l.Leaf15.0 110.0 -0.64 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l.Leaf6.0 102.0 -0.66 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Leaf8.0 109.0 -0.64 *
Brassica junceaLeaf16.0 174.0 -0.48 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l.Flower5.0 122.0 -0.3 *
Brassica pekinensisLeaf28.5 63.0 -0.76 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l.Leaf4.0 151.0 -0.54 *
Bromelia pinguinShoot3.0 75.0 -0.57 *
Brosimum alicastrumFruit8.0 50.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Broussonetia papyriferaFruit-- 560.0 1.69 *
Bupleurum chinenseRoot2.8 25.0 -0.41 *
Byrsonima crassifoliaFruit6.0 118.0 -0.06 *
Cajanus cajanSeed13.0 62.0 -0.41 *
Cajanus cajanFruit17.0 56.0 -0.31 *
Calathea macrosepalaFlower10.0 130.0 -0.25 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Camellia sinensisLeaf189.0 1500.0 2.88 *
Canavalia ensiformisSeed12.0 97.0 -0.25 *
Canavalia ensiformisFruit12.0 175.0 0.17 *
Canna indicaRoot14.0 42.0 -0.38 *
Cannabis sativaSeed120.0 139.0 -0.05 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Capparis spinosaLeaf-- 720.0 0.9 Wealth of India.
Capsella bursa-pastorisPlant48.0 407.0 -0.26 *
Capsicum frutescensFruit7.0 135.0 0.01 *
Capsicum annuumFruit4.0 14.0 -0.47 *
Carica papayaLeaf8.0 38.0 -0.82 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carica papayaFruit0.4 3.0 -0.52 *
Carica pentagonaFruit4.0 60.0 -0.29 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carthamus tinctoriusSeed97.0 102.0 -0.23 *
Carthamus tinctoriusFlower1.0 8.0 -1.05 *
Carum carviSeed123.0 1200.0 4.87 *
Carum carviFruit123.0 286.0 0.61 *
Carya illinoensisSeed24.0 73.0 -0.36 *
Carya ovataShoot12.5 45.0 -0.61 *
Carya glabraShoot10.0 429.0 -0.09 *
Carya ovataSeed-- 32.0 -0.55 *
Casimiroa edulisFruit2.0 15.0 -0.47 *
Cassia toraSeed-- 50.0 -0.47 *
Castanea sativaSeed7.0 16.0 -0.63 *
Castanea mollisimaSeed14.0 25.0 -0.58 *
Castanea dentataSeed12.0 29.0 -0.57 *
Catalpa ovataFruit-- 140.0 0.03 *
Catha edulisLeaf-- 185.0 -0.45 *
Caulophyllum thalictroidesRoot18.0 164.0 -0.2 *
Celosia cristataFlower-- 180.0 0.08 *
Cenchrus biflorusSeed220.0 245.0 0.44 *
Centaurea cyanusPlant-- -- *
Centella asiaticaLeaf3.0 29.0 -0.85 *
Chaenomeles lagenariaFruit-- 110.0 -0.09 *
Chamaemelum nobileFlower-- 170.0 0.01 *
Chamissoa altissimaLeaf137.0 1370.0 2.55 Tramil
Chenopodium ambrosioidesPlant-- 52.0 -0.68 *
Chenopodium albumSeed-- 5.0 -0.68 *
Chenopodium albumLeaf12.0 250.0 -0.29 *
Chondrus crispusPlant-- 874.0 0.29 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum coronariumLeaf25.0 385.0 0.06 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumLeaf-- -- *
Chrysanthemum coronariumBud31.0 420.0 *
Chrysanthemum partheniumPlant-- -- *
Chrysophyllum cainitoFruit4.0 47.0 -0.34 *
Cicer arietinumSeed61.0 72.0 -0.37 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endiviaLeaf6.0 360.0 -0.01 *
Cichorium intybusRoot8.0 40.0 -0.38 *
Cichorium intybusLeaf5.0 246.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cimicifuga dahuricaRhizome-- 680.0 0.97 *
Cimicifuga racemosaRoot8.0 38.0 -0.39 *
Cinnamomum burmanniiBark-- 100.0 -0.46 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark25.0 421.0 0.99 *
Cinnamomum verumBark60.0 421.0 0.99 *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiRoot Bark-- 200.0 -0.4 *
Cistanche salsaPlant-- 60.0 -0.67 *
Citrullus lanatusSeed-- 75.0 -0.35 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatusFruit2.0 143.0 0.04 *
Citrus reticulataFruit1.0 79.0 -0.21 *
Citrus aurantiifoliaFruit-- 67.0 -0.26 *
Citrus aurantiumFruit3.0 260.0 0.5 *
Citrus paradisiFruit1.0 88.0 -0.18 *
Citrus medicaFruit-- 60.0 -0.29 *
Citrus sinensisFruit1.0 8.0 -0.5 *
Citrus limonFruit23.0 72.0 -0.24 *
Citrus mitisFruit30.0 300.0 0.66 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cnicus benedictusPlant3.2 24.0 -0.71 *
Cnidium officinaleRhizome-- 240.0 -0.36 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansaLeaf50.0 600.0 0.6 *
Coccinia grandisFruit14.0 203.0 0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cocos nuciferaSeed20.0 50.0 -0.47 *
Coffea arabicaSeed29.0 31.0 -0.56 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabicaLeaf966.0 1032.0 1.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coix lacryma-jobiSeed29.0 68.0 -0.38 *
Cola acuminataSeed20.0 54.0 -0.45 *
Colocasia esculentaRoot4.0 200.0 -0.15 *
Colocasia esculentaLeaf6.0 200.0 -0.41 *
Commiphora wightiiInflorescence-- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coptis sppRhizome210.0 320.0 -0.12 *
Coptis japonicaRhizome210.0 320.0 -0.12 *
Coptis chinensisRhizome210.0 320.0 -0.12 *
Corchorus olitoriusLeaf47.0 485.0 0.31 *
Coriandrum sativumLeaf30.0 528.0 0.42 *
Coriandrum sativumFruit112.0 227.0 0.37 *
Cornus officinalisFruit-- 90.0 -0.17 *
Corylus avellanaSeed30.0 99.0 -0.24 *
Crataegus cuneataFruit-- 210.0 0.31 *
Crataegus laevigataFruit-- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophyllaFruit-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crescentia alataSeed94.0 97.0 -0.25 *
Cucumis meloFruit2.0 55.0 -0.31 *
Cucumis sativusFruit2.6 420.0 1.14 *
Cucurbita pepoFlower7.0 144.0 -0.16 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita maximaLeaf20.4 145.0 -0.55 *
Cucurbita sppFruit4.0 73.0 -0.24 *
Cucurbita pepoSeed86.0 200.0 0.23 *
Cuminum cyminumFruit155.0 748.0 2.44 *
Cuminum cyminumSeed155.0 748.0 2.77 *
Curcuma longaPlant25.0 80.0 -0.64 *
Curcuma longaRhizome121.0 467.0 0.33 *
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaShoot-- 331.0 -0.23 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cyamopsis tetragonolobaFruit-- 58.0 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cyclanthera pedataFruit6.0 210.0 0.31 *
Cydonia oblongaFruit6.0 52.0 -0.32 *
Cymbopogon citratusPlant-- 543.0 -0.1 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cynanchum atratumRoot-- 1350.0 1.52 *
Cynara cardunculusFlower11.0 101.0 -0.44 *
Cyperus rotundusRhizome-- 430.0 0.21 *
Cyphomandra betaceaFruit6.0 57.0 -0.3 *
Cypripedium pubescensRoot-- 117.0 -0.27 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cyrtosperma chamissonisRoot4.0 22.0 -0.41 *
Daucus carotaRoot3.0 300.0 -0.01 *
Dendrobium nobileStem-- 90.0 -0.61 *
Dioscorea pentaphyllaRoot4.0 24.0 -0.41 *
Dioscorea bulbiferaRhizome-- 40.0 -0.96 *
Dioscorea alataRoot1.4 25.0 -0.41 *
Dioscorea villosaRoot7.0 31.0 -0.4 *
Dioscorea sp.Root-- 315.0 0.02 *
Diospyros virginianaLeaf15.0 500.0 0.35 *
Diospyros virginianaFruit25.0 70.0 -0.25 *
Diospyros digynaFruit3.0 18.0 -0.46 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Diospyros virginianaStem3.0 1620.0 0.84 *
Dipsacus fullonumPlant-- 190.0 -0.51 *
Drynaria fortuneiRhizome-- 50.0 -0.93 *
Durio zibethinusFruit7.0 37.0 -0.38 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Echinacea purpureaRoot18.0 70.0 -0.34 *
Echinacea sppRoot700.0 4800.0 6.53 *
Elaeagnus commutataFruit4.0 30.0 -0.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elaeagnus umbellatusFruit10.0 70.0 -0.25 *
Elaeis guineensisFruit40.0 61.0 -0.29 *
Eleocharis dulcisTuber6.0 37.0 -1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elettaria cardamomumSeed140.0 153.0 0.01 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elettaria cardamomumFruit42.0 66.0 -0.27 *
Eleutherococcus senticosusRoot2.5 12.0 -0.42 *
Elytrigia repensPlant-- 311.0 -0.37 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ephedra sppPlant-- 600.0 -0.03 *
Ephedra sinicaPlant4.4 21.0 -0.71 *
Equisetum hyemalePlant-- 140.0 -0.57 *
Equisetum arvensePlant26.0 123.0 -0.59 *
Eriobotrya japonicaFruit20.0 67.0 -0.26 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eriobotrya japonicaLeaf-- 200.0 -0.41 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Eriocaulon spLeaf-- 70.0 -0.74 *
Eriodictyon californicumLeaf24.0 110.0 -0.64 *
Eryngium floridanumShoot-- 400.0 -0.13 *
Erythrina fuscaLeaf18.0 52.0 -0.79 *
Erythrina berteroanaShoot22.0 140.0 -0.48 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf66.0 490.0 0.32 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf49.0 81.0 -0.72 *
Erythroxylum novogranatenseLeaf86.0 97.0 -0.67 *
Eucommia ulmoidesBark-- 300.0 0.44 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Eugenia unifloraFruit1.0 14.0 -0.47 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eugenia floribundaFruit5.0 40.0 -0.37 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eugenia brasiliensisFruit4.5 34.0 -0.39 *
Euodia rutaecarpaFruit-- 86.0 -0.19 *
Eupatorium odoratumLeaf-- 80.0 -0.72 Tramil
Eupatorium perfoliatumPlant2.0 20.0 -0.71 *
Euphrasia officinalisPlant5.0 31.0 -0.7 *
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed30.0 132.0 -0.09 *
Fallopia japonicaPlant360.0 1300.0 0.79 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Feijoa sellowianaFruit0.5 3.0 -0.52 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Ficus caricaFruit3.0 57.0 -0.3 *
Firmiana simplexSeed-- 70.0 -0.38 *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit100.0 240.0 0.42 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed2.3 21.0 -0.6 *
Foeniculum vulgarePlant27.0 270.0 -0.42 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Forsythia suspensaFruit-- 440.0 1.22 *
Fragaria sppFruit3.0 100.0 -0.13 *
Frangula purshianaBark6.4 23.0 -0.8 *
Fraxinus rhynchophyllaBark-- 120.0 -0.37 *
Fritillaria thunbergiiBulb-- 50.0 -1.41 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Fucus vesiculosusPlant2.0 16.0 -0.72 *
Garcinia mangostanaFruit2.0 46.0 -0.35 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Gardenia jasminoidesFruit40.0 130.0 -0.01 *
Gastrodia elataRhizome-- 40.0 -0.96 *
Genipa americanaFruit10.0 160.0 0.11 *
Genipa americanaSeed-- 100.0 -0.24 *
Gentiana scabraRoot-- 910.0 0.88 *
Gentiana luteaRoot8.0 37.0 -0.39 *
Geranium thunbergiiPlant-- 400.0 -0.27 *
Ginkgo bilobaSeed10.0 26.0 -0.58 *
Ginkgo bilobaLeaf2.0 8.0 -0.9 *
Glechoma hederaceaPlant290.0 500.0 -0.15 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Glehnia littoralisRoot-- 820.0 0.75 *
Gliricidia sepiumLeaf8.0 52.0 -0.79 *
Gliricidia sepiumFlower18.0 129.0 -0.26 *
Glycine maxSeed38.0 180.0 0.14 *
Glycine maxPlant-- 210.0 -0.49 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxSprout Seedling10.0 73.0 -0.98 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine maxFruit28.0 91.0 -0.17 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycyrrhiza uralensisRoot180.0 280.0 -0.03 *
Glycyrrhiza glabraRoot14.0 88.0 -0.31 *
Gymnema sylvestreLeaf9.0 49.0 -0.8 *
Harpagophytum procumbensRoot55.0 290.0 -0.02 *
Helianthus tuberosusTuber6.0 168.0 0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Helianthus annuusSeed60.0 70.0 -0.38 *
Hibiscus rosa-sinensisFlower17.0 165.0 -0.02 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hibiscus sabdariffaLeaf15.0 333.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffaFlower0.7 6.0 -1.06 *
Hordeum vulgareSeed40.0 100.0 -0.24 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hordeum vulgareStem-- 160.0 -0.54 *
Hordeum vulgareSprout Seedling-- 100.0 -0.45 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Houttuynia cordataPlant-- 500.0 -0.15 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Humulus lupulusFlower-- -- *
Humulus lupulusFruit-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Hydrangea arborescensRoot6.0 18.0 -0.42 *
Hydrastis canadensisRoot17.0 61.0 -0.35 *
Hylocereus undatusFruit13.0 83.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hylocereus guatemalensisFruit5.0 37.0 -0.38 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Hyoscyamus nigerSeed-- 180.0 0.14 *
Inga feuilleiAril4.0 25.0 -1.41 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Inga edulisSeed30.0 85.0 -0.31 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Inula heleniumPlant-- -- *
Inula heleniumRoot0.9 4.0 -0.44 *
Ipomoea batatasLeaf10.0 365.0 0.0 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf11.0 540.0 0.45 *
Ipomoea batatasRoot4.0 64.0 -0.35 *
Isatis tinctoriaRoot-- 150.0 -0.22 *
Juglans cinereaSeed38.0 76.0 -0.35 *
Juglans regiaSeed22.0 28.0 -0.57 *
Juglans nigraPericarp5.4 45.0 *
Juglans nigraSeed28.0 73.0 -0.36 *
Juglans nigraFruit-- 455.0 1.28 *
Juncus effususPith-- 840.0 1.41 *
Juniperus virginianaShoot11.0 1320.0 1.1 *
Juniperus communisFruit5.0 15.0 -0.47 *
Jussiaea repensPlant-- 700.0 0.09 *
Justicia pectoralisLeaf74.0 495.0 0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Kalmia latifoliaLeaf-- 50.0 -0.79 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lablab purpureusSeed7.4 61.0 -0.42 *
Lablab purpureusFruit16.7 94.9 -0.15 *
Lactuca sativaLeaf5.0 176.0 -0.47 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit2.0 45.0 -0.35 *
Larrea tridentataPlant11.0 33.0 -0.7 *
Lens culinarisSprout Seedling30.0 116.0 -0.13 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinarisSeed22.0 106.0 -0.21 *
Lepidium sativumLeaf13.0 286.0 -0.2 *
Licania platypusFruit5.0 48.0 -0.34 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Ligustrum lucidumFruit-- 120.0 -0.05 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Ligustrum japonicumFruit-- 120.0 -0.05 *
Limonia acidissimaSeed300.0 312.0 0.75 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Limonia acidissimaFruit6.0 20.0 -0.45 *
Linum usitatissimumSeed29.0 549.0 1.85 *
Lobelia inflataLeaf4.0 31.0 -0.84 *
Lonicera japonicaFlower-- 350.0 1.2 *
Lophatherum gracilePlant-- 240.0 -0.46 *
Luffa aegyptiacaFruit3.0 80.0 -0.21 *
Luffa aegyptiacaLeaf115.0 1162.0 2.02 *
Lupinus albusSeed43.0 49.0 -0.47 *
Lupinus mutabilisSeed55.0 60.0 -0.42 *
Lupinus mutabilisFruit19.0 66.0 -0.27 *
Lycium chinenseFruit13.0 140.0 0.03 *
Lycium chinenseRoot Bark-- 670.0 2.11 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycium chinenseLeaf54.0 519.0 0.39 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit1.0 800.0 2.65 *
Lycopodium clavatumPlant-- 650.0 0.03 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lygodium japonicumPollen Or Spore-- 1090.0 *
Macadamia sppSeed18.0 200.0 0.23 *
Magnolia kobusFlower-- 320.0 1.0 *
Magnolia fargesiiFlower-- 320.0 1.0 *
Magnolia denudataFlower-- 320.0 1.0 *
Magnolia officinalisBark-- 120.0 -0.37 *
Malpighia glabraFruit2.0 28.0 -0.42 *
Malus domesticaFruit1.1 123.0 -0.04 *
Malva sylvestrisLeaf37.0 440.0 0.19 *
Malva parvifloraPlant-- 195.0 -0.51 *
Mammea americanaFruit1.0 51.0 -0.33 *
Mangifera indicaFruit1.0 243.0 0.44 *
Mangifera indicaLeaf-- 62.0 -0.76 *
Manihot esculentaRoot2.0 114.0 -0.28 *
Manihot esculentaLeaf28.0 1500.0 2.88 *
Manilkara zapotaFruit6.0 40.0 -0.37 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Maranta arundinaceaRoot19.0 75.0 -0.33 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Mauritia flexuosaFruit7.0 15.0 -0.47 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Medicago sativaPlant4.9 26.0 -0.71 *
Melicoccus bijugatasFruit5.0 38.0 -0.38 *
Mentha x piperitaLeaf9.0 60.0 -0.77 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascensPlant-- 400.0 -0.27 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Mentha spicataPlant156.0 918.0 0.34 *
Mentha pulegiumPlant-- 2310.0 1.98 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Mimosa pudicaLeaf-- 14.0 -0.89 *
Mimulus glabratusShoot66.0 660.0 0.22 *
Momordica charantiaFruit2.0 560.0 1.69 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Momordica charantiaLeaf50.0 357.0 -0.02 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Morinda spRoot-- 320.0 0.02 *
Morinda citrifoliaLeaf23.0 100.0 -0.67 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Moringa oleiferaFruit3.0 30.0 -0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaShoot40.0 185.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleiferaLeaf70.0 280.0 -0.21 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Morus albaRoot Bark70.0 290.0 0.08 *
Morus albaFruit19.0 247.0 0.45 *
Mucuna pruriensSeed-- 200.0 0.23 *
Muntingia calaburaFruit12.0 53.0 -0.32 *
Murraya koenigiiLeaf30.0 115.0 -0.63 *
Murraya spFruit4.0 17.0 -0.46 *
Musa x paradisiacaFlower-- 1.0 -1.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Musa x paradisiacaPith-- 11.0 -0.81 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Musa x paradisiacaFruit4.0 17.0 -0.46 *
Myrciaria dubiaFruit5.0 85.0 -0.19 *
Myrciaria caulifloraFruit2.0 38.0 -0.38 *
Myrica ceriferaBark10.0 47.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragransSeed30.0 45.0 -0.49 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myristica fragransAril126.0 140.0 0.8 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Nardostachys chinensisRhizome-- 1210.0 2.57 *
Nasturtium officinaleHerb2.0 262.0 -1.0 *
Nelumbo nuciferaSeed9.5 71.0 -0.37 *
Nelumbo nuciferaRhizome7.0 70.0 -0.87 *
Nepeta catariaPlant17.0 138.0 -0.58 *
Nigella sativaSeed-- 140.0 -0.05 *
Notopterygium incisumRhizome-- 280.0 -0.24 *
Nyssa sylvaticaStem33.0 440.0 -0.28 *
Nyssa sylvaticaLeaf8.0 1820.0 3.69 *
Ocimum basilicumLeaf48.0 478.0 0.29 *
Oenothera biennisSeed94.0 390.0 1.11 *
Olea europaeaFruit16.0 73.0 -0.24 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ophiopogon japonicusTuber70.0 340.0 1.88 *
Opuntia ficus-indicaSeed-- 100.0 -0.24 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indicaFruit12.0 65.0 -0.27 *
Origanum majoranaPlant750.0 975.0 0.41 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Origanum vulgarePlant325.0 598.0 -0.03 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Oryza sativaSeed14.0 85.0 -0.31 *
Oxalis tuberosaRoot8.0 49.0 -0.37 *
Pachira macrocarpaSeed38.0 40.0 -0.51 *
Pachyrhizus erosusTuber6.0 55.0 -0.83 *
Paeonia moutanRoot Bark95.0 120.0 -0.83 *
Paeonia lactifloraRoot40.0 47.0 -0.37 *
Paeonia suffruticosaRoot Bark95.0 120.0 -0.83 *
Panax ginsengLeaf-- -- *
Panax japonicusRhizome-- 360.0 0.0 *
Panax ginsengStem-- -- *
Panax ginsengRoot-- -- *
Panax ginsengFruit-- -- *
Panax ginsengPt-- -- *
Panax quinquefoliusPlant49.0 407.0 -0.26 *
Panicum maximumLeaf-- 525.0 0.41 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Papaver somniferumSeed91.0 143.0 -0.04 *
Parthenium integrifoliumRoot1.0 6.0 -0.43 *
Passiflora incarnataFruit16.0 58.0 -0.3 *
Passiflora mollissimaFruit4.0 50.0 -0.33 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Passiflora edulisSeed-- 180.0 0.14 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Passiflora quadrangularisSeed29.0 134.0 -0.08 *
Passiflora ligularisFruit4.0 52.0 -0.32 *
Passiflora edulisFruit16.0 64.0 -0.27 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora quadrangularisFruit6.0 143.0 0.04 *
Passiflora foetidaFruit7.0 39.0 -0.37 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora incarnataFlower0.8 7.0 -1.06 *
Pastinaca sativaRoot4.0 112.0 -0.28 *
Peperomia pelucidaLeaf30.0 410.0 0.12 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Peperomia pereskiifoliaLeaf57.0 380.0 0.04 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pereskia aculeataFruit-- 250.0 0.46 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perideridia gairdneriRoot-- 32.0 -0.4 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Perilla frutescensPlant-- 460.0 -0.2 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Perilla frutescensLeaf67.0 479.0 0.29 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescensSeed13.0 135.0 -0.07 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Persea americanaFruit6.0 71.0 -0.25 *
Persea schiedeanaFruit3.0 15.0 -0.47 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Petasites japonicusPlant2000.0 2100.0 1.73 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Petasites japonicusPt1.0 18.0 -1.15 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Petroselinum crispumPlant1.3 17.0 -0.72 *
Petroselinum crispumShoot-- -- *
Peucedanum decursivumPlant780.0 1400.0 0.91 *
Phaseolus vulgarisSprout Seedling8.0 87.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgarisFruit6.0 1050.0 3.64 *
Phaseolus lunatusLeaf23.0 821.0 1.16 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgarisSeed24.0 147.0 -0.02 *
Phaseolus lunatusSprout Seedling13.0 228.0 2.07 *
Phaseolus coccineusSeed1.0 103.0 -0.22 *
Phaseolus coccineusFruit26.0 41.0 -0.36 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Phaseolus vulgarisLeaf92.0 697.0 0.85 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus lunatusSeed22.0 1000.0 3.95 *
Phaseolus acutifoliusSeed24.0 56.0 -0.44 *
Phellodendron amurenseBark-- 210.0 0.04 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit10.0 151.0 0.07 *
Phoenix dactyliferaSeed5.0 17.0 -0.62 Abstract (See species file)
Phyllanthus emblicaFruit5.0 163.0 0.12 *
Phyllanthus acidusFruit11.0 372.0 0.95 *
Physalis peruvianaFruit12.0 115.0 -0.07 *
Physalis ixocarpaFruit14.0 2974.0 11.27 *
Phytelephas aequatorialisMesocarp7.0 25.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Phytelephas aequatorialisFlower8.0 27.0 -0.93 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Phytolacca americanaShoot17.0 202.0 -0.4 *
Pimenta dioicaLeaf76.0 95.0 -0.68 *
Pimenta dioicaFruit60.0 85.0 -0.19 *
Pimpinella anisumFruit391.0 409.0 1.09 *
Pimpinella anisumSeed348.0 409.0 1.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinellia ternataTuber70.0 95.0 -0.45 *
Pinus echinataShoot34.0 630.0 0.18 *
Pinus pineaSeed92.0 100.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus cembroidesSeed45.0 55.0 -0.45 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus edulisSeed28.0 37.0 -0.53 *
Pinus gerardianaSeed-- 25.0 -0.58 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Piper betelLeaf35.0 240.0 -0.31 *
Piper auritumLeaf48.0 315.0 -0.12 *
Piper nigrumFruit24.0 407.0 1.09 *
Pistacia veraSeed46.0 137.0 -0.06 *
Pisum sativumFruit21.0 206.0 0.29 *
Pisum sativumSeed14.0 90.0 -0.28 *
Pisum sativumPlant-- 400.0 -0.27 *
Plantago asiaticaPlant-- 890.0 0.31 *
Plantago majorSeed5.0 18.0 -0.62 *
Plantago psylliumSeed4.0 20.0 -0.61 *
Plantago psylliumHull Husk-- 183.0 *
Platonia insignisFruit22.0 79.0 -0.21 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Platycodon grandiflorumRoot62.0 200.0 -0.15 *
Plectranthus amboinicusLeaf39.0 695.0 0.84 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Polygala tenuifoliaRoot-- 290.0 -0.02 *
Polygonum multiflorumRhizome-- 150.0 -0.63 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Polygonum multiflorumPlant-- 350.0 -0.33 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Polygonum multiflorumRoot-- 156.0 -0.22 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polymnia edulisRoot6.0 66.0 -0.35 *
Polystichum polyblepharumPlant500.0 1900.0 1.5 *
Portulaca oleraceaHerb8.0 467.0 1.0 *
Pourouma cecropiaefoliaFruit-- -- -0.53 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Pouteria campechianaFruit7.0 26.0 -0.42 *
Pouteria caimitoFruit10.0 70.0 -0.25 *
Pouteria viridisFruit7.0 22.0 -0.44 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Prunella vulgarisFlower-- 640.0 3.1 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Prunus serotinaStem0.19 810.0 0.07 *
Prunus persicaFruit1.0 99.0 -0.13 *
Prunus domesticaFruit0.8 85.0 -0.19 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit5.0 79.0 -0.21 *
Prunus serotinaLeaf20.0 1440.0 2.73 *
Prunus persicaBark-- 117.0 -0.38 *
Prunus salicifoliaFruit6.0 36.0 -0.38 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus cerasusFruit3.0 78.0 -0.22 *
Prunus persicaSeed-- 80.0 -0.33 *
Prunus dulcisSeed35.0 60.0 -0.42 *
Prunus armeniacaSeed42.0 48.0 -0.48 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Psidium guajavaFruit3.0 73.0 -0.24 *
Psidium cattleianumFruit2.0 82.0 -0.2 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusLeaf20.0 259.0 -0.26 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusTuber20.0 47.0 -0.9 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusSeed15.0 158.0 0.03 *
Psoralea esculentaRoot-- 39.0 -0.38 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pueraria pseudohirsutaRoot50.0 68.0 -0.34 *
Pueraria montanaRoot6.0 19.0 -0.41 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pulsatilla chinensisRoot-- 1050.0 1.08 *
Punica granatumFruit3.0 16.0 -0.46 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pyrus communisFruit0.9 37.0 -0.38 *
Quararibea cordataFruit4.0 90.0 -0.17 *
Quercus velutinaStem14.0 236.0 -0.47 *
Quercus rubraSeed-- 81.0 -0.32 *
Quercus albaBark0.5 2.0 -0.9 *
Quercus stellataStem17.0 420.0 -0.3 *
Quercus phellosStem14.0 294.0 -0.42 *
Quercus rubraStem12.0 343.0 -0.37 *
Quercus albaStem2.0 380.0 -0.34 *
Quisqualis indicaFruit-- 50.0 -0.33 *
Raphanus sativusLeaf41.0 357.0 -0.02 *
Raphanus sativusSeed-- 120.0 -0.14 *
Raphanus sativusFruit4.0 295.0 0.64 *
Raphanus sativusRoot2.0 189.0 -0.17 *
Rehmannia glutinosaRoot-- 920.0 0.89 *
Rheum rhabarbarumLeaf3.0 250.0 -0.29 *
Rheum palmatumRhizome100.0 180.0 -0.54 *
Rheum rhabarbarumPt1.0 154.0 -0.14 *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- 152.0 -0.54 *
Rhodymenia palmataPlant-- 792.0 0.19 *
Ribes uva-crispaFruit2.5 40.0 -0.37 *
Ribes rubrumFruit9.0 68.0 -0.26 *
Ribes nigrumFruit11.0 108.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rollinia mucosaFruit12.0 53.0 -0.32 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Rosa laevigataFruit-- 40.0 -0.37 *
Rosa caninaFruit-- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalisPlant220.0 400.0 -0.27 *
Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf65.0 400.0 0.09 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubia cordifoliaRoot-- 720.0 0.6 *
Rubus chingiiFruit-- 110.0 -0.09 *
Rubus chamaemorusFruit7.0 47.0 -0.34 *
Rubus idaeusFruit5.0 45.0 -0.35 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rubus idaeusLeaf17.0 101.0 -0.66 *
Rumex crispusRoot20.0 76.0 -0.33 *
Rumex acetosaLeaf16.0 160.0 -0.52 *
Ruscus aculeatusRoot50.0 164.0 -0.2 *
Salix albaBark3.5 21.0 -0.81 *
Salvia miltiorrhizaRoot-- 230.0 -0.11 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Salvia officinalisLeaf2.4 15.0 -0.88 *
Sambucus canadensisPlant16.0 79.0 -0.65 *
Sambucus nigraFruit15.0 90.0 -0.17 *
Sassafras albidumLeaf33.0 1020.0 1.66 *
Sassafras albidumStem3.0 740.0 0.0 *
Satureja hortensisPlant-- 416.0 -0.25 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Schisandra chinensisFruit5.0 35.0 -0.39 *
Schizonepeta tenuifoliaPlant-- 1700.0 1.26 *
Sclerocarya caffraFruit1.0 12.0 -0.48 *
Sclerocarya caffraSeed-- 4.0 -0.68 *
Scrophularia buergerianaRoot-- 140.0 -0.24 *
Scutellaria baicalensisRoot170.0 220.0 -0.12 *
Scutellaria laterifloraPlant3.4 25.0 -0.71 *
Secale cerealeSeed25.0 54.0 -0.45 *
Sechium eduleShoot3.0 40.0 -0.61 *
Sechium eduleLeaf46.0 262.0 -0.26 *
Sechium eduleFruit4.0 57.0 -0.3 *
Senna occidentalisSeed-- 1300.0 5.34 *
Senna alexandrinaLeaf17.0 84.0 -0.71 *
Senna obtusifoliaSeed29.0 37.0 -0.53 *
Serenoa repensFruit9.0 66.0 -0.27 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sesamum indicumSeed20.0 169.0 0.08 *
Sicana odoriferaFruit6.0 48.0 -0.34 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sida rhombifoliaLeaf50.0 253.0 -0.28 *
Siegesbeckia orientalisPlant-- 190.0 -0.51 *
Silybum marianumLeaf23.0 106.0 -0.65 *
Silybum marianumPlant-- 106.0 -0.61 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Simmondsia chinensisSeed-- 46.0 -0.49 *
Sinapis albaSeed90.0 370.0 1.02 *
Sinomenium acutumRhizome-- 150.0 -0.63 *
Smilax officinalisRoot19.0 91.0 -0.31 *
Smilax sppRoot19.0 91.0 -0.31 *
Solanum quitoensisFruit34.0 49.0 -0.33 *
Solanum torvumFruit46.0 315.0 0.72 *
Solanum melongenaFruit3.0 137.0 0.02 *
Solanum nigrumLeaf3.0 660.0 0.75 *
Solanum sessiliflorumFruit6.0 60.0 -0.29 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Solanum tuberosumTuber5.0 128.0 -0.13 *
Solanum melongenaLeaf155.0 1140.0 1.97 *
Sonchus oleraceusLeaf31.0 455.0 0.23 *
Sophora angustifoliaRoot280.0 860.0 0.81 *
Sophora subprostrataRoot-- 130.0 -0.25 *
Sorbus aucubariaFruit7.0 58.0 -0.3 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant8.0 384.0 -0.29 *
Spinacia oleraceaLeaf-- -- *
Spirulina spp.Plant-- 71.0 -0.65 *
Spirulina pratensisPlant-- 71.0 -0.65 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Spondias tuberosaFruit-- 7.0 -0.5 *
Spondias mombinFruit10.0 127.0 -0.02 *
Spondias purpureaFruit6.0 37.0 -0.38 *
Spondias dulcisFruit3.0 23.0 -0.44 *
Spondias pinnataFruit39.0 400.0 1.06 *
Stachys officinalisPlant2.0 10.0 -0.73 *
Stellaria mediaPlant21.0 253.0 -0.44 *
Stevia rebaudianaPlant-- 850.0 0.26 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudianaLeaf-- 39.0 -0.82 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphoricarpos orbiculatusStem19.0 4400.0 3.47 *
Symphytum officinaleLeaf1.3 12.0 -0.89 *
Symphytum officinaleRoot-- 810.0 0.74 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Syzygium jambosFruit4.0 75.0 -0.23 *
Syzygium aromaticumFruit45.0 150.0 0.07 *
Syzygium cuminiFruit2.0 113.0 -0.08 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium aromaticumFlower45.0 150.0 -0.12 *
Syzygium malaccenseFruit-- 80.0 -0.21 *
Tabebuia heptaphyllaBark-- -- *
Tamarindus indicaLeaf52.0 88.0 -0.7 *
Tamarindus indicaFruit13.0 109.0 -0.1 *
Tamarindus indicaFlower-- 70.0 -0.64 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tanacetum partheniumPlant-- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum officinaleRoot14.0 96.0 -0.3 *
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf31.0 900.0 1.36 *
Taraxacum mongolicumPlant-- 910.0 0.33 *
Tephrosia candidaPlant-- 78.0 -0.65 *
Terminalia catappaSeed-- 95.0 -0.26 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tetragonia tetragonioidesLeaf8.0 133.0 -0.58 *
Tetrapanax papyriferaPith-- 90.0 -0.6 *
Theobroma bicolorFruit7.0 34.0 -0.39 *
Theobroma speciosumFruit17.0 45.0 -0.35 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma cacaoSeed36.0 37.0 -0.53 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Theobroma bicolorSeed34.0 35.0 -0.54 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Thymus vulgarisPlant1075.0 1508.0 1.04 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Thymus vulgarisLeaf25.0 147.0 -0.55 *
Trachyspermum ammiFruit178.0 299.0 0.66 *
Tragopogon porrifoliusRoot7.0 67.0 -0.34 *
Tribulus terrestrisLeaf-- 92.0 -0.69 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit11.0 200.0 0.27 *
Trifolium pratenseShoot10.0 1850.0 1.81 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Trifolium pratenseFlower-- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecumSeed7.3 56.0 -0.44 *
Triticum aestivumSeed10.0 120.0 -0.14 *
Triticum aestivumPlant70.0 770.0 0.17 *
Tropaeolum majusShoot13.0 95.0 -0.54 *
Tropaeolum tuberosumRoot2.0 85.0 -0.32 *
Turnera diffusaLeaf19.0 88.0 -0.7 *
Tussilago farfaraFlower-- 370.0 1.33 *
Ullucus tuberosusRoot7.0 58.0 -0.36 *
Ulmus rubraBark-- -- *
Urtica dioicaLeaf8.0 42.0 -0.81 *
Urtica dioicaSeed-- 57.0 -0.44 *
Urtica dioicaRoot-- 63.0 -0.35 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaLeaf-- 250.0 -0.29 *
Vaccinium myrtillusFruit12.0 151.0 0.07 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFruit4.0 31.0 -0.4 *
Vaccinium macrocarponFruit1.0 8.0 -0.5 *
Vaccinium myrtillusLeaf-- 250.0 -0.29 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium corymbosumFruit2.0 11.0 -0.48 *
Valeriana officinalisRoot6.0 48.0 -0.37 *
Valerianella radicataPlant349.0 425.0 -0.24 *
Valerianella locustaPlant3519.0 4143.0 4.14 *
Verbascum thapsusLeaf104.0 236.0 -0.32 *
Viburnum opulusBark-- 880.0 3.06 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vicia fabaSeed19.0 100.0 -0.24 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifoliaSeed88.0 143.0 -0.04 *
Vigna unguiculataFruit1.0 69.0 -0.25 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSeed58.0 84.0 -0.31 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataShoot19.0 188.0 -0.42 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculataShoot19.0 188.0 -0.42 *
Vigna subterraneaSeed12.0 136.0 -0.07 *
Vigna mungoSeed84.0 102.0 -0.23 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed10.0 240.0 0.41 *
Vigna unguiculataSeed86.0 94.0 -0.26 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiataSprout Seedling5.6 132.0 0.18 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularisSeed50.0 58.0 -0.43 *
Viscum albumLeaf-- 460.0 0.25 *
Vitellaria paradoxaSeed-- 32.0 -0.55 *
Vitis viniferaFruit1.5 154.0 0.08 *
Vitis viniferaStem-- 900.0 0.16 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumRoot3.0 27.0 -0.4 *
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumLeaf20.0 365.0 0.0 *
Yucca baccataRoot1.5 7.3 -0.43 *
Zea maysSeed5.0 41.0 -0.51 *
Zea maysSilk Stigma Style-- 504.0 *
Zingiber officinaleRoot1.1 15.0 -0.42 *
Zingiber officinaleRhizome4.0 162.0 -0.59 *
Zizyphus jujubaFruit7.0 170.0 0.15 *
Zizyphus spina-christiFruit-- 33.0 -0.4 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.