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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Taraxacum officinaleLeaf-- -- Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Cinnamomum burmanniiBark-- -- *
Polystichum polyblepharumPlant-- -- *
Rhizophora mangleLeaf-- -- *
Petasites japonicusPlant-- -- Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Boehmeria niveaPlant-- -- *
Fallopia japonicaPlant-- -- Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Peucedanum decursivumPlant-- -- *
Malus domesticaPlant-- -- *
Artemisia vulgarisPlant-- -- Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Glechoma hederaceaPlant-- -- Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Panax quinquefoliusPlant-- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentumFruit-- -- *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiBark-- -- *
Foeniculum vulgareFruit-- 0.002 -0.29 *
Foeniculum vulgareSeed-- 0.002 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Papaver somniferumSeed-- 0.006 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pisum sativumSeed-- 0.009 -0.28 *
Solanum tuberosumPlant-- 0.011 -0.45 *
Zea maysSeed-- 0.012 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Helianthus tuberosusTuber-- 0.012 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hyssopus officinalisPlant-- 0.014 -0.45 *
Mangifera indicaFruit-- 0.016 -0.29 *
Sesamum indicumSeed-- 0.023 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Corylus avellanaSeed-- 0.03 -0.28 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Lens culinarisSeed0.025 0.03 -0.28 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vigna mungoSeed-- 0.034 -0.28 *
Vigna radiataSeed0.034 0.037 -0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Helianthus annuusSeed-- 0.042 -0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ipomoea batatasRoot-- 0.045 -1.0 *
Prunus armeniacaFruit-- 0.05 -0.29 *
Erythroxylum cocaLeaf-- 0.05 -1.1 *
Phoenix dactyliferaFruit-- 0.06 -0.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Secale cerealeSeed0.07 0.08 -0.27 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Piper nigrumFruit-- 0.09 -0.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans cinereaSeed-- 0.1 -0.27 *
Anacardium occidentaleSeed-- 0.1 -0.27 *
Juglans nigraSeed-- 0.1 -0.27 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Quercus rubraSeed-- 0.1 -0.27 *
Carya illinoensisSeed-- 0.1 -0.27 *
Carya ovataSeed-- 0.1 -0.27 *
Lepidium sativumLeaf-- 0.11 -1.01 *
Avena sativaPlant-- 0.154 -0.45 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Fagopyrum esculentumSeed0.016 0.155 -0.26 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Bertholletia excelsaSeed-- 0.2 -0.26 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Prunus dulcisSeed0.1 0.2 -0.26 *
Spinacia oleraceaPlant-- 0.2 -0.45 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Trichosanthes anguinaFruit0.01 0.2 -0.29 *
Fragaria sppPlant0.157 0.23 -0.45 *
Cocos nuciferaSeed-- 0.3 -0.25 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Panicum maximumLeaf0.12 0.31 -0.72 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Momordica charantiaFruit-- 0.41 -0.29 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Trachyspermum ammiFruit-- 0.45 -0.29 *
Vicia fabaFruit0.09 0.6 -0.29 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Spondias pinnataFruit0.04 0.61 -0.29 *
Moringa oleiferaLeaf0.05 0.7 -0.14 *
Allium sativum var. sativumBulb0.03 0.7 *
Pteridium aquilinumLeaf-- 0.9 0.15 *
Cinnamomum aromaticumBark-- 1.0 -1.0 *
Ananas comosusFruit-- 1.0 -0.29 *
Lagenaria sicerariaFruit0.005 1.12 -0.28 *
Ipomoea aquaticaLeaf0.15 1.5 1.04 *
Rumex acetosaLeaf0.07 2.0 1.77 *
Cinnamomum verumBark-- 3.0 1.0 *
Cinnamomum sieboldiiRoot Bark-- 4.0 *
Lepidium meyeniiRoot-- 5.0 1.0 *
Quercus rubraStem2.0 5.0 -1.29 *
Carya glabraShoot2.0 5.0 -0.73 *
Quercus stellataStem3.0 5.0 -1.29 *
Quercus velutinaStem2.0 5.0 -1.29 *
Carya ovataShoot2.0 5.0 -0.73 *
Quercus phellosStem4.0 6.0 0.77 *
Rhus glabraStem3.0 6.0 0.77 *
Liquidambar styracifluaStem3.0 6.0 0.77 *
Pinus echinataShoot4.0 6.0 -0.24 *
Symphoricarpos orbiculatusStem4.0 6.0 0.77 *
Quercus albaStem2.0 6.0 0.77 *
Juniperus virginianaShoot3.0 10.0 1.7 *
Juglans nigraPericarp1.8 15.0 *
Glycine maxSeed0.5 16.0 1.21 *
Pistacia veraSeed-- 51.0 4.47 *
Fucus vesiculosusPlant64.0 540.0 2.24 *
Capparis spinosaFruit-- 699.0 3.46 Wealth of India.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.