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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Piper cubeba Fruit Essent. Oil -- 42000.0 *
Satureja montana Essential Oil -- 39400.0 1.0 *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- 24000.0 1.0 *
Salvia officinalis Essential Oil -- 17900.0 -1.0 *
Coleus barbatus Root Essent. Oil -- 17000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- 1200.0 1.4 *
Amomum compactum Seed -- 720.0 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Metrosideros sclerocarpa Leaf 177.0 708.0 2.6 *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 300.0 1.7 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 20.0 124.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Artemisia annua Plant 1.0 120.0 1.0 *
Juniperus communis Fruit -- 102.0 -0.6 *
Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaf -- 100.0 -0.0 *
Elsholtzia cristata Shoot -- 55.0 -0.3 Kobold, U., Vostrowsky, O., Bestmann, H.J., Bisht, J.C., Pant, A.K., Melkani, A.B. and Mathela, C.S. 1987. Terpenoids from Elsholtzia Species; II. Constituents of Essential Oil from a New Chemotype of Elsholtzia cristata. Planta Medica 1987: 268-271.
Ocimum gratissimum Plant 5.0 30.0 -1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Achillea millefolium Leaf 0.5 22.0 -0.4 *
Sideritis scardica Shoot -- 22.0 -0.6 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Echinacea spp Root 8.0 12.0 Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf 0.001 12.0 -0.4 *
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 7.4 -0.4 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.