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Total Plants: 190
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 440.0 4400.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Acacia farnesiana Leaf 2720.0 14590.0 1.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb 2000.0 4800.0 -1.0 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Leaf -- -- *
Allium cepa Bulb 490.0 5341.0 1.0 *
Allium schoenoprasum Leaf 1390.0 17375.0 1.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Aloe vera Leaf -- 5030.0 -1.4 *
Alpinia galanga Leaf -- -- *
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 1320.0 15880.0 1.5 *
Anacardium occidentale Seed 8030.0 8169.0 -0.4 *
Ananas comosus Fruit 65.0 1259.0 -0.9 *
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolens Pt 210.0 4290.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaea Seed 15760.0 18993.0 1.2 *
Arctium lappa Root 310.0 1550.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Root -- -- *
Artocarpus altilis Seed 4650.0 10635.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Asimina triloba Fruit 389.0 3501.0 -0.0 *
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 990.0 12774.0 -1.0 *
Avena sativa Seed -- 2000.0 -1.3 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 260.0 2860.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella alba Leaf 670.0 9710.0 -0.2 *
Bertholletia excelsa Seed 6570.0 6797.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgaris Root 290.0 2287.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Borago officinalis Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 1590.0 10232.0 -0.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 950.0 10203.0 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 600.0 9834.0 -0.2 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 270.0 2610.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 640.0 8270.0 *
Brassica rapa Leaf 430.0 9189.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapa Root 250.0 3075.0 0.2 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 270.0 3610.0 -1.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensis Leaf 430.0 9189.0 -0.3 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 6860.0 8970.0 -0.3 *
Calathea allouia Root 3920.0 4310.0 1.2 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Canavalia ensiformis Seed -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit 310.0 4228.0 0.2 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 740.0 6038.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papaya Fruit 180.0 1611.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carvi Seed 13220.0 14675.0 0.5 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea dentata Seed 2268.0 4038.0 -1.0 *
Castanea sativa Seed 1070.0 2353.0 -1.2 *
Castanea mollisima Seed 1837.0 3271.0 -1.1 *
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ceratonia siliqua Seed -- 24910.0 2.0 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium album Leaf 2490.0 15861.0 1.4 *
Cicer arietinum Seed 8030.0 9075.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endivia Leaf 580.0 9340.0 -0.3 *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit -- 1178.0 -0.9 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus reticulata Fruit 20.0 5158.0 0.6 *
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- -- *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 50.0 7097.0 1.4 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansa Leaf 2170.0 10850.0 0.1 *
Cocos nucifera Seed 1580.0 2980.0 -1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nucifera Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nucifera Endosperm -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculenta Root 740.0 2520.0 -0.2 *
Corchorus olitorius Leaf 2140.0 17420.0 1.9 *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- *
Crocus sativus Bulb -- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonica Root -- -- *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 190.0 4810.0 0.5 *
Cucurbita spp Fruit 440.0 6962.0 1.3 *
Cucurbita foetidissima Seed 14735.0 27700.0 2.4 *
Cucurbita pepo Seed 17960.0 39220.0 4.1 *
Cucurbita pepo Fruit 270.0 8000.0 1.7 *
Daucus carota Root 300.0 2455.0 -0.2 *
Dioscorea pentaphylla Root 460.0 2480.0 -0.2 *
Echinacea purpurea Plant -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Fagopyrum esculentum Seed -- 9750.0 -0.2 *
Ficus carica Fruit 250.0 1197.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 11070.0 12144.0 3.3 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 11070.0 12144.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria spp Fruit 240.0 2847.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo biloba Seed 2320.0 6325.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glycine max Seed 16870.0 18445.0 1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Harpagophytum procumbens Root -- -- *
Helianthus annuus Seed 14610.0 15400.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosus Tuber -- 2478.0 -1.0 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Ipomoea batatas Root 580.0 2725.0 -0.0 *
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 990.0 13150.0 0.7 *
Juglans regia Seed 7550.0 7835.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigra Seed 12030.0 12580.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinerea Seed 15080.0 15601.0 0.7 *
Lablab purpureus Seed 10280.0 11345.0 0.1 *
Lactuca sativa Leaf 570.0 9500.0 -0.2 *
Larrea tridentata Plant -- 4200.0 -0.2 *
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 3190.0 10635.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodes Fruit -- -- *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- 6830.0 3.1 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimum Seed -- 0.352 -1.6 *
Lupinus albus Seed 15390.0 17185.0 0.9 *
Lycium chinense Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 23.0 3637.0 0.0 *
Macadamia spp Seed 3710.0 3815.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domestica Plant 80.0 497.0 -0.8 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 210.0 1900.0 -0.7 *
Manihot esculenta Root 640.0 2030.0 -0.6 *
Melia azedarach Plant -- -- *
Mentha x piperita Leaf 1800.0 8430.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicata Leaf 1580.0 10935.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantia Seed -- 38.2 -1.6 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleifera Shoot 5170.0 24225.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriens Seed 7200.0 15265.0 0.6 *
Murraya sp Fruit 450.0 1296.0 -0.9 *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 450.0 1296.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinale Herb 1120.0 22400.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nucifera Seed 2210.0 6697.0 -0.6 *
Nelumbo nucifera Rhizome 1560.0 7464.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativa Seed 8840.0 20700.0 1.4 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf -- 6900.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennis Seed 10500.0 11206.0 0.0 *
Opuntia ficus-indica Bud -- 4745.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indica Seed -- 14200.0 0.5 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativa Plant -- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosus Tuber 310.0 2855.0 -0.8 *
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Panax quinquefolius Plant 23.0 1540.0 -0.7 *
Panax ginseng Leaf -- -- *
Papaver somniferum Seed 11230.0 12047.0 0.2 *
Papaver bracteatum Seed 7750.0 9350.0 -0.2 *
Perideridia gairdneri Root -- 1842.0 -0.7 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americana Fruit 660.0 3226.0 -0.1 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Sprout Seedling 1440.0 15484.0 1.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 2740.0 10090.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 8430.0 9474.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 650.0 6680.0 1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 40.0 3010.0 -0.2 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 198.0 980.0 -1.0 *
Pinellia ternata Tuber -- -- *
Pinus edulis Seed 5890.0 6260.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pinea Seed 12230.0 15000.0 0.6 *
Pistacia vera Seed 10950.0 11391.0 0.1 *
Pisum sativum Seed 1840.0 8704.0 -0.3 *
Pisum sativum Fruit 720.0 7122.0 1.4 *
Plantago ovata Seed -- -- *
Portulaca oleracea Herb 460.0 11000.0 -1.0 *
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- -- *
Prunus persica Fruit 240.0 1944.0 -0.6 *
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 400.0 2930.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus dulcis Seed 12360.0 12929.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domestica Fruit 120.0 811.0 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium guajava Fruit 410.0 2952.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianum Fruit 290.0 1500.0 -0.8 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Leaf 1490.0 6436.0 -1.1 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Tuber 3900.0 9155.0 1.5 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 11400.0 12437.0 0.2 *
Psoralea esculenta Root -- 1097.0 -1.3 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communis Fruit 110.0 679.0 -1.1 *
Raphanus sativus Root 220.0 4265.0 1.1 *
Rehmannia glutinosa Root 1000.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 1590.0 4935.0 -1.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Salvia officinalis Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Sambucus canadensis Fruit 360.0 1782.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensis Root -- -- *
Secale cereale Seed 7010.0 7870.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium edule Fruit 450.0 6430.0 1.1 *
Senna obtusifolia Seed -- 6890.0 -0.6 *
Sesamum indicum Seed 5890.0 19918.0 1.3 *
Silybum marianum Seed -- -- *
Sinapis alba Seed 13120.0 14038.0 0.4 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 620.0 5700.0 0.2 *
Solanum melongena Fruit 320.0 5452.0 0.7 *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 1340.0 15914.0 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Theobroma cacao Seed -- 900.0 -1.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgaris Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Tilia sp. Fruit -- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed 10630.0 14366.0 0.5 *
Triticum aestivum Seed 4830.0 5635.0 -0.8 *
Urtica dioica Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 280.0 1819.0 -0.7 *
Valerianella locusta Leaf 790.0 10970.0 0.1 *
Vicia faba Seed 2300.0 12100.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed -- 8550.0 -0.3 *
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 930.0 6618.0 -1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed -- 8550.0 -0.3 *
Vigna radiata Seed 9540.0 10489.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularis Seed 7560.0 8734.0 -0.3 *
Vitis vinifera Fruit 200.0 1029.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea mays Seed 1270.0 5283.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinale Shoot -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome 430.0 2486.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinale Root 430.0 2486.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinale Tuber -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.