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Total Plants: 210
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinale Root 1620.0 9328.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinale Rhizome 1620.0 9328.0 1.0 *
Zea mays Seed 6360.0 26457.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vitis vinifera Fruit 1380.0 7099.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed -- 43190.0 0.1 *
Vigna angularis Seed 30990.0 35802.0 -0.2 *
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 1610.0 16912.0 -1.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed -- 43190.0 0.1 *
Vigna radiata Seed 42640.0 46883.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vicia faba Seed 8550.0 45000.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Valerianella locusta Plant 2030.0 28195.0 0.6 *
Valeriana officinalis Root -- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 830.0 5393.0 -0.6 *
Urtica dioica Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Triticum aestivum Seed 39000.0 63000.0 0.9 *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed 39880.0 43870.0 0.1 *
Trifolium pratense Plant -- -- *
Tribulus terrestris Fruit -- -- *
Tilia sp. Fruit -- -- *
Theobroma cacao Seed -- 10200.0 -1.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Taraxacum officinale Leaf -- -- Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Stachys officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 3430.0 40735.0 1.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Solanum melongena Fruit 2010.0 24907.0 0.9 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 3470.0 24150.0 0.7 *
Sinapis alba Seed 49790.0 53275.0 0.5 *
Silybum marianum Seed -- -- *
Sesamum indicum Seed 24670.0 51927.0 0.4 *
Sechium edule Fruit 1370.0 19570.0 0.5 *
Secale cereale Seed 36610.0 41110.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensis Root -- -- *
Sambucus canadensis Fruit 960.0 4752.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 3610.0 11200.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ricinus communis Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ribes nigrum Fruit Juice -- 210.0 *
Rehmannia glutinosa Root 2000.0 53000.0 3.2 *
Raphanus sativus Root 1320.0 25580.0 0.9 *
Pyrus communis Fruit 280.0 1729.0 -0.9 *
Psoralea esculenta Root 4093.0 12319.0 -0.2 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 40100.0 43749.0 0.1 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Leaf 3890.0 16803.0 -1.1 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Tuber 8000.0 18779.0 -0.1 *
Psidium cattleianum Fruit 760.0 3930.0 -0.7 *
Psidium guajava Fruit 1070.0 7704.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus dulcis Seed 59340.0 62070.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 1570.0 11500.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus domestica Fruit 370.0 2500.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persica Fruit 1060.0 8586.0 -0.4 *
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- -- *
Portulaca oleracea Herb 1500.0 33792.0 -1.0 *
Plantago ovata Seed -- -- *
Pisum sativum Seed 7400.0 35005.0 -0.3 *
Pisum sativum Fruit 4480.0 44313.0 2.4 *
Pisum sativum Shoot -- 70.0 -1.4 *
Pistacia vera Seed 49160.0 51139.0 0.4 *
Pinus edulis Seed 19690.0 20925.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pinea Seed 40840.0 59800.0 0.8 *
Pinellia ternata Tuber -- -- *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 1320.0 6535.0 -0.5 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 400.0 6160.0 -0.6 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Sprout Seedling 5120.0 55054.0 1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 8810.0 33820.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 32940.0 37019.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 1870.0 19219.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Persea americana Fruit 1660.0 8045.0 -0.4 *
Perideridia gairdneri Root -- 12319.0 -0.2 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Papaver somniferum Seed 45410.0 48713.0 0.3 *
Papaver bracteatum Seed 37600.0 43200.0 0.1 *
Panax ginseng Leaf -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Panax quinquefolius Plant 396.0 4450.0 -1.3 *
Pachyrhizus erosus Tuber 820.0 7560.0 -1.6 *
Oryza sativa Hay -- -- *
Opuntia ficus-indica Bud -- 16000.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indica Seed -- 37500.0 -0.2 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oenothera biennis Seed 26300.0 28068.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf -- 15650.0 -1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nigella sativa Seed 28085.0 35900.0 -0.2 *
Nelumbo nucifera Seed 9570.0 29000.0 -0.5 *
Nelumbo nucifera Rhizome 1390.0 6650.0 -1.0 *
Nasturtium officinale Herb 1900.0 38000.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Myrica cerifera Root -- -- *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 1160.0 3341.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Murraya sp Fruit 1160.0 3341.0 -0.8 *
Mucuna pruriens Seed 19075.0 40440.0 -0.1 *
Morus alba Leaf -- -- *
Moringa oleifera Shoot 10350.0 48500.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantia Seed -- 212.0 -1.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Momordica charantia Fruit -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha x piperita Leaf 4090.0 19155.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha spicata Leaf 3580.0 24775.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Melia azedarach Plant -- -- *
Manihot esculenta Root 4700.0 14925.0 -0.0 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 600.0 6800.0 -0.5 *
Malus domestica Fruit 156.0 1244.0 -0.9 *
Macadamia spp Seed 17820.0 18330.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 90.0 54053.0 3.2 *
Lycium barbarum Fruit -- 6300.0 -0.5 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Lupinus albus Seed 21650.0 96985.0 2.3 *
Linum usitatissimum Seed -- 1.153 -1.8 *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- 15650.0 0.0 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Lentinus edodes Fruit -- -- *
Lens culinaris Seed 43500.0 49000.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 12580.0 41935.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Larrea tridentata Plant -- 13600.0 -0.6 *
Lactuca sativa Leaf 1820.0 30333.0 -0.4 *
Lablab purpureus Seed 1720.0 42815.0 0.0 *
Juglans regia Seed 28090.0 29155.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans cinerea Seed 60840.0 62942.0 0.9 *
Juglans nigra Seed 52130.0 54505.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ipomoea batatas Root 1590.0 6360.0 -0.8 *
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 2520.0 33465.0 -0.2 *
Huperzia spp Plant -- -- *
Hordeum vulgare Seed 32000.0 38000.0 -0.2 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Helianthus tuberosus Tuber -- 26493.0 1.0 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Harpagophytum procumbens Root -- -- *
Glycine max Shoot -- -- *
Glycine max Seed 70680.0 77280.0 1.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederacea Plant -- -- Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)
Ginkgo biloba Seed 8360.0 22840.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fragaria spp Fruit 900.0 10676.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 29560.0 32427.0 1.5 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 29560.0 32427.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ficus carica Fruit 720.0 3447.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fagopyrum esculentum Seed -- 23300.0 -0.8 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Elaeagnus angustifolia Root -- 0.48 -1.3 Wheller, C. T., Bond, G. 1970. The Amino Acids of Non-Legume Root Nodules. Phytochemistry 9: 705-708. Dept. Botany Univ. Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland.
Dryopteris marginalis Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Dioscorea pentaphylla Root 1590.0 8565.0 -0.6 *
Daucus carota Root 2020.0 16545.0 0.1 *
Cucurbita pepo Seed 43150.0 101820.0 2.5 *
Cucurbita foetidissima Seed 52800.0 73530.0 1.3 *
Cucurbita pepo Fruit 1840.0 35000.0 1.7 *
Cucurbita spp Fruit 1260.0 19935.0 0.5 *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 1540.0 38987.0 2.0 *
Cryptotaenia japonica Shoot -- -- *
Crocus sativus Bulb -- -- *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- *
Corchorus olitorius Leaf 4930.0 40130.0 0.1 *
Colocasia esculenta Root 1740.0 5925.0 -0.8 *
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Cocos nucifera Endosperm -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cocos nucifera Seed 7610.0 14355.0 -1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nucifera Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coccinia grandis Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cnidoscolus chayamansa Leaf 11780.0 58900.0 1.1 *
Citrus paradisi Fruit 220.0 2800.0 -0.8 *
Citrus limon Plant -- -- *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 60.0 7097.0 -0.5 *
Citrus reticulata Fruit 160.0 5158.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrullus lanatus Seed -- 53000.0 0.5 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatus Fruit -- 7420.0 -0.5 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Cichorium endivia Leaf 1660.0 26731.0 -0.6 *
Cicer arietinum Seed 33600.0 38150.0 -0.2 *
Chondrus crispus Thallus -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Chenopodium album Leaf 5210.0 33188.0 -0.3 *
Ceratonia siliqua Seed -- 131600.0 3.8 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Castanea sativa Seed 2558.0 5628.0 -1.5 *
Castanea mollisima Seed 5393.0 9600.0 -1.4 *
Castanea dentata Seed 6204.0 11043.0 -1.3 *
Carum carvi Seed 31690.0 35175.0 -0.3 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Carica papaya Fruit -- -- USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 2640.0 21542.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuum Fruit 1120.0 15277.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant -- -- *
Calathea allouia Root 8825.0 9710.0 -0.5 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 40790.0 56270.0 0.6 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 3740.0 24065.0 -0.7 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 3750.0 40275.0 0.1 *
Brassica rapa Leaf 3600.0 76932.0 2.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 2650.0 34240.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 1310.0 21471.0 -0.9 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 1420.0 13730.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapa Root 1300.0 15990.0 0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 2700.0 36099.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica chinensis Leaf 3600.0 76932.0 2.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 3750.0 40275.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgaris Root 3930.0 30994.0 1.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bertholletia excelsa Seed 31510.0 32600.0 -0.4 *
Basella alba Leaf 2830.0 41015.0 0.2 *
Bacopa monnieri Plant -- -- Wealth of India.
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 770.0 8480.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Avena sativa Seed 29000.0 31000.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativa Plant -- 19000.0 -0.2 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Astragalus membranaceus Root -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 5010.0 64645.0 1.0 *
Asimina triloba Fruit 622.0 7332.0 -0.5 *
Artocarpus altilis Seed 10360.0 23690.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Root -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Arctium lappa Root 1570.0 7850.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaea Seed 54650.0 65281.0 1.0 *
Apium graveolens Pt 860.0 18285.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolens Shoot -- -- *
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Ananas comosus Fruit 90.0 3333.0 -0.8 *
Anacardium occidentale Seed 36240.0 36867.0 -0.2 *
Anabasis aphylla Plant -- -- *
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 2920.0 35128.0 -0.2 *
Alpinia galanga Leaf -- -- *
Aloe vera Leaf -- 43256.0 0.3 *
Allium cepa Bulb -- -- Thomas, D. J., Parkin, K. L. 1994. Quantification of Alk(en)yl-L-Cysteine Sulfoxides and Related Amino Acids in Alliums by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. Agr. Food Chem., 42(8): 1632-1638.
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb 5.0 19320.0 *
Allium ampeloprasum Plant -- -- *
Allium schoenoprasum Leaf 5790.0 72400.0 1.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium sativum var. sativum Leaf -- -- *
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acacia farnesiana Leaf 10080.0 54070.0 0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 2710.0 27100.0 1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.