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Total Plants: 357
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot 105.0 1040.0 0.3 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Barosma betulina Leaf -- -- *
Boswellia sacra Essential Oil -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Boswellia sacra Resin Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 Abdel Wahab, S. M., Aboutabl, E. A., El-Zalabani, S. M., Fouad, H. A., De Pooter, H. L., El-Fallaha, B. 1987. The Essential Oil of Olibanum. Plant Med. 53 (4): 382-384.
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Shoot -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 31.0 -0.4 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 1.0 -0.4 *
Canarium indicum Essential Oil 400.0 1000.0 -0.8 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Carica papaya Fruit -- -- *
Carum carvi Plant 270.0 2215.0 0.4 *
Carum carvi Seed 12.0 14160.0 1.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Carum carvi Fruit 12.0 14160.0 2.0 *
Centella asiatica Essential Oil -- 4000.0 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Centella asiatica Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- 28.0 -0.4 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 3.0 12.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- 9.4 -0.4 Mallavarupu, G. R. et al. 1995. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flav. & Fragr. J., 10: 239-242.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.