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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Agastache rugosa Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Plant -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- -- *
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Boronia megastigma Flower -- -- *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Camellia sinensis Fruit -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 2100.0 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Cynara cardunculus Essential Oil -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Drimys winteri Bark -- -- *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- -- -0.8 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Ficus carica Flower -- -- *
Ficus carica Fruit -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Helianthus annuus Flower -- -- *
Helichrysum angustifolium Plant -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Essential Oil -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.