Data Views

Total Plants: 193
  CSV  Excel  PDF

Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Zea mays Seed -- -- *
Viola odorata Leaf -- -- *
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- 0.01 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- 0.02 -0.7 *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- -- *
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 5.0 -0.5 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.5 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Thymus vulgaris Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 21.0 -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Bulb -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Scutellaria baicalensis Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 0.5 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Rosa centifolia Essential Oil -- -- *
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pueraria montana Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root -- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
Prunus dulcis Flower -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Plant -- -- *
Polianthes tuberosa Flower -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Piper nigrum Fruit -- -- *
Piper nigrum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pimpinella anisum Plant -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- 792400.0 1.1 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Pimenta dioica Flower Essent. Oil -- 543000.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majorana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 255000.0 -0.3 *
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- -- *
Oenanthe javanica Shoot -- -- *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 1670.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 14.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Ocimum sp Plant -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Inflorescence -- -- *
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 5700.0 26700.0 *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 4045.0 2.8 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Nicotiana tabacum Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 1000.0 38000.0 *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Morinda citrifolia Fruit -- 0.01 -0.7 *
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- -- -0.5 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil -- 16000.0 -0.7 *
Mentha x piperita Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Essential Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha longifolia Shoot -- -- *
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha spicata Shoot -- -- *
Melissa officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Melia azedarach Wood -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca bracteata Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Magnolia kobus Flower -- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Lonicera japonica Flower -- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Levisticum officinale Root -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermedia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilis Essential Oil -- -- *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx -- -- *
Helichrysum angustifolium Plant -- -- *
Helianthus annuus Flower -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Ficus carica Fruit -- -- *
Ficus carica Flower -- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- -- -0.8 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Drimys winteri Bark -- -- *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Cynara cardunculus Essential Oil -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 2100.0 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit -- -- *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Boronia megastigma Flower -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Anethum graveolens Plant -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Agastache rugosa Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.