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Total Plants: 193
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Agastache rugosa Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Plant -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Boronia megastigma Flower -- -- *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Camellia sinensis Fruit -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 2100.0 *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Cynara cardunculus Essential Oil -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Drimys winteri Bark -- -- *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- -- -0.8 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Ficus carica Flower -- -- *
Ficus carica Fruit -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Helianthus annuus Flower -- -- *
Helichrysum angustifolium Plant -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Essential Oil -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
Lavandula x intermedia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinale Root -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Lonicera japonica Flower -- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Magnolia kobus Flower -- -- *
Melaleuca bracteata Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melia azedarach Wood -- -- *
Melissa officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Mentha longifolia Shoot -- -- *
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha x piperita Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha spicata Shoot -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Essential Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil -- 16000.0 -0.7 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- -- -0.5 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Morinda citrifolia Fruit -- 0.01 -0.7 *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 1000.0 38000.0 *
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Nicotiana tabacum Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 1670.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 14.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Inflorescence -- -- *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 5700.0 26700.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Ocimum sp Plant -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 4045.0 2.8 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Oenanthe javanica Shoot -- -- *
Origanum majorana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 255000.0 -0.3 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- -- *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimenta dioica Flower Essent. Oil -- 543000.0 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- 792400.0 1.1 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Pimpinella anisum Plant -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Piper nigrum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Piper nigrum Fruit -- -- *
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Polianthes tuberosa Flower -- -- *
Prunus dulcis Flower -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Plant -- -- *
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root -- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Pueraria montana Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Rosa centifolia Essential Oil -- -- *
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 0.5 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria baicalensis Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Bulb -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- -- *
Thymus funkii Shoot -- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus vulgaris Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 5.0 -0.5 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.5 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 21.0 -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- -- *
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- 0.01 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- 0.02 -0.7 *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viola odorata Leaf -- -- *
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Zea mays Seed -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.