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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- 792400.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Pimenta dioica Flower Essent. Oil -- 543000.0 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Origanum majorana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 255000.0 -0.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 1000.0 38000.0 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 5700.0 26700.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil -- 16000.0 -0.7 *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 4045.0 2.8 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 2100.0 *
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 1670.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 21.0 -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 14.0 -0.6 *
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 5.0 -0.5 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 0.5 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.