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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 5700.0 26700.0 *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 1000.0 38000.0 *
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Essential Oil -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarach Wood -- -- *
Nicotiana tabacum Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Inflorescence -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Polianthes tuberosa Flower -- -- *
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Mentha longifolia Shoot -- -- *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Zea mays Seed -- -- *
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.