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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 4045.0 2.8 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- 792400.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Origanum majorana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 255000.0 -0.3 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 1670.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 21.0 -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 5.0 -0.5 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 0.5 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.5 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- -- -0.5 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 14.0 -0.6 *
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil -- 16000.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- 0.02 -0.7 *
Morinda citrifolia Fruit -- 0.01 -0.7 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- -- -0.8 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.