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Total Plants: 193
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- 792400.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Pimenta dioica Flower Essent. Oil -- 543000.0 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Origanum majorana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 255000.0 -0.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 1000.0 38000.0 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 5700.0 26700.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil -- 16000.0 -0.7 *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 4045.0 2.8 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 2100.0 *
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 1670.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 21.0 -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 14.0 -0.6 *
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 5.0 -0.5 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 0.5 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.5 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- 0.02 -0.7 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- 0.01 *
Morinda citrifolia Fruit -- 0.01 -0.7 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Inflorescence -- -- *
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- -- -0.5 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- -- -0.8 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Essential Oil -- -- *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarach Wood -- -- *
Nicotiana tabacum Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Polianthes tuberosa Flower -- -- *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Mentha longifolia Shoot -- -- *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Zea mays Seed -- -- *
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Essential Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit -- -- *
Pueraria montana Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Plant -- -- *
Thymus funkii Shoot -- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Plant -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root -- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Prunus dulcis Flower -- -- *
Oenanthe javanica Shoot -- -- *
Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Syzygium aromaticum Bulb -- -- *
Viola odorata Leaf -- -- *
Melaleuca bracteata Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Scutellaria baicalensis Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Thymus vulgaris Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Cynara cardunculus Essential Oil -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- -- *
Melissa officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosa Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Magnolia kobus Flower -- -- *
Drimys winteri Bark -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx -- -- *
Piper nigrum Fruit -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Piper nigrum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ocimum sp Plant -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha x piperita Essential Oil -- -- *
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- -- *
Ficus carica Fruit -- -- *
Helichrysum angustifolium Plant -- -- *
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Rosa centifolia Essential Oil -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ficus carica Flower -- -- *
Helianthus annuus Flower -- -- *
Mentha spicata Shoot -- -- *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Boronia megastigma Flower -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Plant -- -- *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lonicera japonica Flower -- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Levisticum officinale Root -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Lavandula x intermedia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Syzygium aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.