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Total Plants: 193
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 4045.0 2.8 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 108655.0 180000.0 2.6 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant -- 5340.0 2.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 7920.0 26400.0 2.3 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot -- 3000.0 1.9 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum suave Shoot 110.0 2860.0 1.8 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 16.0 21840.0 1.7 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 857500.0 1.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil 701000.0 945000.0 1.6 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 3500.0 36000.0 1.4 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 100.0 12000.0 1.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 140.0 16800.0 1.4 *
Daucus carota Seed -- 7000.0 1.4 *
Piper betel Leaf 535.0 17850.0 1.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 1400.0 16800.0 1.2 Wealth of India.
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- 792400.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil 61000.0 627000.0 1.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 36000.0 57000.0 1.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 8348.0 12000.0 0.6 *
Origanum majorana Plant 200.0 2000.0 0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 14.0 8575.0 0.2 *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 800.0 0.2 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 45.0 5580.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 4200.0 4970.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 51200.0 270000.0 -0.3 *
Origanum majorana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 255000.0 -0.3 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 0.6 870.0 -0.4 *
Hyssopus officinalis Flower 62.0 624.0 -0.4 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 72.
Viola odorata Flower 147.0 357.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower -- 35.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Jasminum officinale Flower 3.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.32 4.6 -0.4 *
Rosa gallica Flower 2.0 4.0 -0.4 *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 55.0 125.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 60.0 93.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegium Plant 160.0 320.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 1670.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 21.0 -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Myrtus communis Shoot 1.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 8.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 5.0 -0.5 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 4.0 -0.5 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 66.0 233.0 -0.5 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.9 -0.5 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 0.5 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.5 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.5 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- -- -0.5 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.5 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Umbellularia californica Plant 10.0 40.0 -0.6 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 14.0 -0.6 *
Lavandula latifolia Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilis Leaf 18.0 1335.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil -- 16000.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.8 375.0 -0.7 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 15.0 1050.0 -0.7 *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 90.0 400.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 3000.0 -0.7 *
Commiphora myrrha Essential Oil -- 2300.0 -0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 2100.0 -0.7 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- 0.02 -0.7 *
Morinda citrifolia Fruit -- 0.01 -0.7 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome 30.0 300.0 -0.7 *
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 110.0 -0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 280.0 750.0 -0.7 *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 2.0 443.0 -0.8 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 2.8 400.0 -0.8 *
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.8 *
Juglans regia Leaf 10.0 30.0 -0.8 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 5.0 15.0 -0.8 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- -- -0.8 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Myristica fragrans Seed 40.0 320.0 -0.9 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Stem 20.0 100.0 -1.0 *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13600.0 -1.0 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 10200.0 -1.0 *
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 1000.0 38000.0 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Essential Oil -- -- *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Melia azedarach Wood -- -- *
Nicotiana tabacum Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Inflorescence -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Polianthes tuberosa Flower -- -- *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Mentha longifolia Shoot -- -- *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Zea mays Seed -- -- *
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Essential Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit -- -- *
Pueraria montana Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Plant -- -- *
Thymus funkii Shoot -- -- Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 5700.0 26700.0 *
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Plant -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root -- -- Ito, Y., Hirayama, F., Aikawa, Y., Kondo, H., Sagara, K., Shoji, J. 1995. Constituents from Muira-Puama (The Roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides). Nat. Med. 49, 4: 487.
Prunus dulcis Flower -- -- *
Oenanthe javanica Shoot -- -- *
Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil 61000.0 420000.0 *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Syzygium aromaticum Bulb -- -- *
Pimenta dioica Flower Essent. Oil -- 543000.0 *
Viola odorata Leaf -- -- *
Melaleuca bracteata Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Scutellaria baicalensis Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- 0.01 *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Thymus vulgaris Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Cynara cardunculus Essential Oil -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- -- *
Melissa officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Agastache rugosa Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Magnolia kobus Flower -- -- *
Drimys winteri Bark -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx -- -- *
Piper nigrum Fruit -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Piper nigrum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ocimum sp Plant -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha x piperita Essential Oil -- -- *
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- -- *
Ficus carica Fruit -- -- *
Helichrysum angustifolium Plant -- -- *
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 2100.0 *
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Rosa centifolia Essential Oil -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ficus carica Flower -- -- *
Helianthus annuus Flower -- -- *
Mentha spicata Shoot -- -- *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Boronia megastigma Flower -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Plant -- -- *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Foeniculum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Lonicera japonica Flower -- -- Schlotzhauer, W.S., S.D. Pair, and R.J. Horvat. 1996. Volatile constituents from the flowers of Japanese Honeysuckle. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:206-209.
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Levisticum officinale Root -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Lavandula x intermedia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
Syzygium aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.