Data Views

Total Plants: 825
  CSV  Excel  PDF

Click on column headings to sort table by that column
Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus moschatus Seed 2000.0 6000.0 -0.5 *
Abies spectabilis Leaf -- 5000.0 -0.6 *
Abies balsamea Leaf 6500.0 14000.0 0.2 *
Abies alba Leaf 2500.0 3500.0 -0.7 *
Abies sachalinensis Branches 16000.0 18000.0 1.3 *
Acacia farnesiana Flower 5000.0 50000.0 1.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Acanthospermum hispidum Plant -- 2000.0 -0.6 Wealth of India.
Achillea millefolium Flower 700.0 5000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Achillea moschata Plant 3000.0 6000.0 -0.3 *
Achillea millefolium Plant 177.0 14000.0 0.3 *
Achillea millefolium Leaf 250.0 16000.0 0.4 *
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 500.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 6400.0 -0.4 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Acinos suaveolens (Sibt. et Smith). G. Don fil. Growing in Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3:191-2.
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 500.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acorus calamus Rhizome 10000.0 100000.0 0.8 *
Acorus calamus Shoot -- 1200.0 -0.8 *
Acorus calamus Leaf -- 2000.0 -0.8 *
Actaea racemosa Plant 1000.0 4000.0 -0.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Aegle marmelos Leaf -- 6000.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Aeolanthus myriantha Flower -- 20200.0 0.2 Wealth of India.
Aethusa cynapium Plant -- 150.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Aframomum melegueta Seed 3000.0 80000.0 0.5 *
Agastache pallidiflora Flower 1550.0 3160.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache nepetoides Plant -- 500.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache urticifolia Plant -- 6500.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache pallidiflora Leaf -- 830.0 -0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1000.0 12500.0 0.2 *
Agathosma betulina Leaf 10000.0 35000.0 2.1 *
Ageratum conyzoides Plant 200.0 1600.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoria Plant -- 2000.0 -0.6 Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Alliaria petiolata Seed 5000.0 9600.0 -0.4 *
Alliaria petiolata Root 330.0 930.0 -0.6 *
Alliaria petiolata Plant 50.0 520.0 -0.7 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb 600.0 19800.0 1.2 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Root 370.0 4000.0 -0.5 *
Allium cepa Bulb 50.0 150.0 -1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aloysia citrodora Plant 700.0 7000.0 -0.2 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 400.0 48000.0 0.0 *
Alpinia galanga Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome 3000.0 10000.0 -0.5 *
Althaea officinalis Leaf -- 200.0 -1.0 Wealth of India.
Althaea officinalis Root 54.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Althaea officinalis Flower -- 200.0 -0.4 Wealth of India.
Ammi visnaga Seed 200.0 300.0 -0.5 *
Amomum xanthioides Seed 15000.0 30000.0 -0.2 *
Amomum compactum Seed -- 24000.0 -0.2 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Anaphalis margaritacea Plant -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Fruit 12000.0 77000.0 0.7 *
Anethum graveolens Root 300.0 500.0 -0.6 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Anethum graveolens Shoot -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Plant 5600.0 15000.0 0.4 *
Anethum graveolens Seed 12000.0 77000.0 0.4 *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 1640.0 15000.0 0.3 *
Angelica archangelica Root 1000.0 19000.0 0.2 *
Angelica sinensis Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Angelica sinensis Root 880.0 7000.0 -0.3 *
Angelica archangelica Seed 2000.0 38000.0 -0.1 *
Angelica sinensis Tissue Culture -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Anisochilus carnosus Leaf -- 11900.0 0.0 Wealth of India.
Anisomeles malabarica Flower -- 700.0 -0.4 Wealth of India.
Anisomeles malabarica Stem -- 50.0 -0.5 Wealth of India.
Anisomeles malabarica Root -- 50.0 -0.7 Wealth of India.
Anisomeles malabarica Leaf -- 250.0 -1.0 Wealth of India.
Anthriscus cerefolium Seed -- 9000.0 -0.4 *
Anthriscus cerefolium Plant -- 300.0 -0.7 *
Apium graveolens Fruit 42000.0 200000.0 3.1 *
Apium graveolens Seed 4200.0 30000.0 -0.2 *
Apocynum androsaemifolium Root -- 160.0 -0.6 *
Aralia cordata Stem -- 750.0 -0.5 *
Arctium lappa Leaf -- 285.0 -1.0 Wealth of India.
Arctium lappa Root 600.0 7500.0 -0.3 Wealth of India.
Ardisia japonica Plant 1000.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Aristolochia serpentaria Plant -- -- *
Armoracia rusticana Root 500.0 2160.0 -0.6 *
Armoracia rusticana Plant 200.0 3050.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arnica montana Flower 400.0 1400.0 -0.4 *
Arnica montana Root 17700.0 37400.0 1.1 *
Arnica montana Rhizome 5000.0 63100.0 0.3 *
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf -- -- *
Artemisia vulgaris Root -- 1000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia herba-alba Plant -- 2900.0 -0.5 *
Artemisia capillaris Plant 1000.0 2300.0 -0.6 *
Artemisia abrotanum Plant 1800.0 21000.0 0.9 *
Artemisia salsoloides Shoot -- 5000.0 -0.5 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Artemisia vulgaris Plant 260.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot 1000.0 10000.0 -0.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant 1000.0 10000.0 0.0 *
Artemisia annua Leaf 1400.0 40000.0 2.5 *
Artemisia pallens Plant 1300.0 5800.0 -0.3 *
Artemisia cina Bud 20000.0 30000.0 -0.1 *
Artemisia absinthium Leaf 2500.0 17000.0 0.5 *
Asarum canadense Rhizome 35000.0 45000.0 -0.0 *
Asiasarum sieboldii Root 20000.0 30000.0 0.8 *
Astragalus gummifer Gum 20000.0 30000.0 -1.0 *
Atractylodes lancea Rhizome 50000.0 90000.0 0.6 *
Azadirachta indica Stem Bark -- 200.0 -1.0 *
Ballota nigra Plant -- 300.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Barosma betulina Leaf 15000.0 35000.0 2.1 *
Betula lenta Bark 2300.0 6000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Betula lenta Bud 40000.0 60000.0 1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Bixa orellana Leaf -- 4000.0 -0.7 Wealth of India.
Bixa orellana Seed 755.0 844.0 -0.5 *
Boronia megastigma Flower 4000.0 8000.0 -0.2 *
Boswellia sacra Latex Exudate 30000.0 100000.0 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Boswellia serrata Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 160000.0 0.2 Sabinsa: A series of well documented proprietary PR booklets, e.g.Sabinsa Corps. 1998. Bronchial Asthma - Its etiology and control with traditional herbal extracts. Sabinsa Corporation. Piscataway, NJ. 49 pp.
Brassica oleracea Stem -- 190.0 -0.5 *
Brassica nigra Seed 7000.0 12000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Brassica juncea Seed 4500.0 30900.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Bursera delpechiana Wood 25000.0 120000.0 2.3 *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 4500.0 -0.5 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Calamintha nepeta Leaf -- 8000.0 -0.3 Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Calamintha nepeta Plant -- 6000.0 -0.3 J. Ethnopharmacology, 39: 167.
Calendula officinalis Flower 200.0 4000.0 -0.3 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf 30.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Cananga odorata Flower 5000.0 25000.0 0.4 *
Canarium indicum Gum 100000.0 250000.0 -0.3 *
Cannabis sativa Bud 1300.0 8000.0 -1.2 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit 1290.0 5000.0 -0.7 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit -- 16000.0 -0.5 *
Carica papaya Seed -- 900.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Carum carvi Fruit 30000.0 70000.0 0.5 *
Carum carvi Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Carum carvi Seed 20000.0 82000.0 0.5 *
Cassia marilandica Plant -- -- *
Caulophyllum thalictroides Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cedrus libani Wood 35000.0 60000.0 0.5 *
Cedrus deodora Wood -- 25000.0 -0.6 *
Centella asiatica Leaf 321.0 6000.0 -0.5 *
Centella asiatica Plant 3000.0 6000.0 -0.3 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chamaemelum nobile Plant 6000.0 17500.0 0.6 *
Chelidonium majus Plant -- 130.0 -0.7 *
Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaf 2000.0 3000.0 -0.8 *
Chenopodium ambrosioides Fruit 1830.0 25000.0 -0.3 *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- 600.0 -0.7 *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Shoot 400.0 1500.0 -0.8 Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Flower -- 1400.0 -0.4 Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Plant 200.0 700.0 -0.7 *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- 1500.0 -0.8 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Cimicifuga racemosa Root 210.0 4000.0 -0.5 *
Cimicifuga racemosa Plant 1000.0 4000.0 -0.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cinchona spp Bark -- 50.0 -1.0 Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Cinchona pubescens Bark -- 50.0 -1.0 Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Cinnamomum camphora Leaf 5000.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 2000.0 25000.0 1.2 *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 3500.0 40000.0 2.5 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 5000.0 12000.0 0.0 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Leaf 3100.0 7700.0 -0.3 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cissampelos pareira Root -- 2000.0 -0.6 *
Cistus ladaniferus Essential Oil 1000.0 70000.0 1.1 *
Citrus reticulata Fruit 7500.0 10000.0 -0.6 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus limon Pt 2000.0 6000.0 1.0 *
Citrus aurantium Fruit 7000.0 25000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus paradisi Fruit 6000.0 10000.0 -0.6 *
Citrus paradisi Pericarp 3700.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Plant 3000.0 10000.0 0.0 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Pt -- 3100.0 -1.0 *
Citrus aurantium Flower 1000.0 5000.0 -0.3 *
Citrus sinensis Pericarp 15000.0 20000.0 1.3 *
Citrus paradisi Leaf -- 1800.0 -0.9 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 7500.0 10000.0 -0.6 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus limon Pericarp -- 2600.0 -1.2 *
Citrus aurantium Leaf -- 3000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus mitis Leaf 9000.0 10600.0 -0.1 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cleonia lusitanica Leaf -- 500.0 -1.0 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- 3000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cnidium officinale Rhizome 10000.0 20000.0 -0.4 *
Coffea arabica Seed 1000.0 2000.0 -0.5 *
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- 500.0 -0.7 *
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap 15000.0 170000.0 0.3 *
Conium maculatum Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Conyza canadensis Plant 2600.0 6000.0 -0.3 *
Copaifera spp Gum 300000.0 900000.0 1.9 *
Coriandrum sativum Seed -- -- *
Coriandrum sativum Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 2000.0 26000.0 -0.3 *
Coriandrum sativum Seed Essent. Oil 100.0 14900.0 -1.0 *
Coriaria myrtifolia Leaf -- -- *
Coridothymus capitatus Shoot -- 22000.0 1.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Crataegus laevigata Fruit 279.0 2500.0 -0.8 *
Crocus sativus Silk Stigma Style 3700.0 13700.0 1.0 *
Croton eluteria Bark 15000.0 30000.0 1.7 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed 20000.0 50000.0 0.1 *
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 20000.0 50000.0 0.2 *
Cunila origanoides Shoot -- 28000.0 1.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Curcuma longa Rhizome 3000.0 72000.0 0.4 *
Curcuma zedoaria Rhizome 10000.0 15000.0 -0.5 *
Curcuma xanthorrhiza Rhizome 30000.0 295000.0 3.7 *
Curcuma longa Plant 15500.0 80000.0 5.3 *
Curcuma longa Leaf -- 4100.0 -0.7 *
Cymbopogon martinii Plant 1000.0 5000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon citratus Plant 2000.0 30000.0 1.5 *
Cymbopogon parkeri Plant -- 15500.0 0.4 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Cymbopogon martinii Flower 4500.0 13700.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon nardus Plant 3000.0 12000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cymbopogon flexuosus Leaf 2500.0 5000.0 -0.6 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant 4000.0 7000.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cyperus rotundus Root 5000.0 10000.0 -0.2 *
Cypripedium pubescens Root -- -- *
Datura stramonium Leaf -- 450.0 -1.0 *
Daucus carota Seed 4000.0 8000.0 -0.4 *
Daucus carota Root -- 4000.0 -0.5 *
Daucus carota Shoot -- 4000.0 -0.6 *
Dianthus caryophyllus Flower 30.0 2900.0 -0.3 *
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 7200.0 -0.3 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dictamnus albus Leaf -- 1500.0 -0.9 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 5500.0 -0.4 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dictamnus albus Flower -- 500.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 7200.0 -0.3 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dracocephalum parviflora Plant -- 1000.0 -0.7 *
Dracocephalum thymiflora Plant -- 2000.0 -0.6 *
Drimys winteri Bark -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Dryopteris filix-mas Rhizome 80.0 400.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Echinacea spp Flower 600.0 6000.0 -0.2 Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Echinacea angustifolia Root 400.0 13000.0 -0.0 *
Echinacea pallida Flower -- 2800.0 -0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Echinacea spp Root 50.0 40000.0 1.2 *
Echinacea purpurea Flower 1300.0 4800.0 -0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Echinacea purpurea Root 628.0 2500.0 -0.5 *
Echinacea pallida Shoot 500.0 1000.0 -0.9 Jim Duke's personal files.
Echinacea spp Leaf 100.0 6000.0 -0.5 Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Echinacea purpurea Shoot 900.0 3200.0 -0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Echinacea pallida Root 2000.0 23000.0 0.4 *
Elaeagnus angustifolia Shoot -- -- Isaev, V. 1932. Essential Oils of the Flora of Tadshikistan. Acta Hortii Bot Tadshikistan 1932: 17-.
Elaeagnus angustifolia Flower -- 1000.0 -0.4 *
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 25000.0 100000.0 1.1 *
Elettaria cardamomum Seed Essent. Oil -- 64500.0 1.0 *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Root -- 8000.0 -0.3 *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Leaf -- 3100.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eleutherococcus senticosus Fruit -- 5000.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eleutherococcus senticosus Stem -- 2600.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 2000.0 -0.8 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia eriostachya Shoot -- 1000.0 -0.9 Pant, A.K., Dev, V., Parihar, R., Mathela,C.S., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky, O. and Bestmann, H.J. 1992. The Essential Oil from Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 547-549.
Elsholtzia pilosa Shoot -- 2000.0 -0.8 *
Elsholtzia cristata Shoot -- 4000.0 -0.6 Kobold, U., Vostrowsky, O., Bestmann, H.J., Bisht, J.C., Pant, A.K., Melkani, A.B. and Mathela, C.S. 1987. Terpenoids from Elsholtzia Species; II. Constituents of Essential Oil from a New Chemotype of Elsholtzia cristata. Planta Medica 1987: 268-271.
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 1300.0 -0.8 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 2000.0 -0.8 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia patrini Plant 1000.0 2500.0 -0.6 Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Elsholtzia ciliata Plant 1000.0 2500.0 -0.6 Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Elytrigia repens Rhizome 100.0 520.0 -0.7 *
Ephedra sinica Plant 1000.0 4000.0 -0.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Eryngium foetidum Plant 200.0 400.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Erythroxylum coca Leaf 200.0 1300.0 -0.9 *
Eucalyptus tetraptera Leaf -- 20400.0 0.8 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 15700.0 0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus leucoxylon Leaf -- 11000.0 -0.0 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 6900.0 -0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus viridis Leaf -- 1000.0 -0.9 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus porosa Leaf -- 21200.0 0.9 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 16800.0 0.6 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus incrassata Leaf -- 28400.0 1.5 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 6700.0 -0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus ochrophloia Leaf -- 900.0 -0.9 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus erythrandra Leaf -- 14300.0 0.2 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus ceratocorys Leaf -- 12300.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus cuprea Leaf -- 12700.0 0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- 6800.0 -0.4 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus populnea Leaf -- 3600.0 -0.7 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf 5000.0 20000.0 0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 14700.0 0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 2800.0 -0.7 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 4500.0 -0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 2900.0 -0.7 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus fasiculosa Leaf -- 2600.0 -0.8 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 6600.0 -0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus desquamata Leaf -- 30900.0 1.7 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus lansdowneana Leaf -- 4800.0 -0.6 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 14300.0 0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 21200.0 1.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 2400.0 -0.7 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus intertexta Leaf -- 11000.0 -0.0 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus dolichorhyncha Leaf -- 12500.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 7200.0 -0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus largisparsa Leaf -- 9200.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 3200.0 -0.7 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 20500.0 0.9 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus angulosa Leaf -- 2600.0 -0.8 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus citriodora Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus stoatei Leaf -- 26000.0 1.3 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 3900.0 -0.6 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus paniculata Shoot -- 1000.0 -0.9 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melanophloia Leaf -- 1600.0 -0.9 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus odorata Leaf -- 8800.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 12000.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 10400.0 0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 12000.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus forrestiana Leaf -- 33200.0 1.9 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- 10500.0 0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus behriana Leaf -- 5400.0 -0.5 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus bridgesiana Leaf -- 27000.0 1.4 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus bridgesiana Growing in India. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 449-450.
Eucalyptus sparsa Leaf -- 50400.0 3.4 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf 5000.0 35000.0 2.1 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus nova-anglica Leaf 14000.0 24000.0 1.1 Brophy, J. L., Lassak, E. V., & Boland, D. J. 1992. The Leaf Essential Oils of Eucalyptus nova-anglica. Deane & Maiden. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 29-32.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 17300.0 0.6 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 1800.0 -0.8 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 5500.0 -0.4 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eugenia brasiliensis Leaf -- 15000.0 0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Eugenia brasiliensis Bark -- 15000.0 0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Euodia rutaecarpa Fruit -- 20000.0 -0.4 *
Eupatorium triplinerve Plant -- 6000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalis Plant 1500.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Ferula sumbul Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Ferula gummosa Gum 50000.0 300000.0 -0.1 *
Ferula jaeschkeana Root -- 12000.0 -0.1 *
Ferula assa-foetida Gum 30000.0 170000.0 -0.5 *
Ferula jaeschkeana Fruit -- 38000.0 -0.1 *
Ferula alliacea Fruit -- 9000.0 -0.6 *
Ficus carica Leaf -- 700.0 -1.0 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Foeniculum vulgare Root 5000.0 7000.0 -0.3 *
Foeniculum vulgare Tissue Culture -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 2160.0 60000.0 0.2 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 10000.0 80000.0 0.7 *
Fragaria spp Plant -- -- *
Galeopsis tetrahit Shoot -- 400.0 -0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Galipea officinalis Bark 10000.0 20000.0 0.8 *
Gardenia jasminoides Flower -- 700.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gaultheria fragrantissima Shoot 1200.0 12000.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gaultheria procumbens Leaf 5500.0 8000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Gelsemium sempervirens Root -- 5000.0 -0.4 *
Genista tinctoria Shoot -- 300.0 -0.9 *
Ginkgo biloba Wood -- 50000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glechoma hederacea Plant 100.0 600.0 -0.7 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root 400.0 590.0 -0.6 *
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root -- 50.0 -0.7 Isaev, V. 1932. Essential Oils of the Flora of Tadshikistan. Acta Hortii Bot Tadshikistan 1932: 17-.
Grindelia squarrosa Plant -- 3000.0 -0.5 *
Guaiacum sp. Wood 50000.0 60000.0 0.5 *
Hamamelis virginiana Leaf -- 5000.0 -0.6 *
Hedeoma hispida Plant -- 2000.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma pulegioides Shoot 6000.0 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hedeoma reverchonii Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Hedeoma drummondii Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant 6000.0 30000.0 1.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hedychium flavum Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Helianthus annuus Flower -- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Helichrysum angustifolium Plant 750.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Hemidesmus indicus Root 1600.0 2250.0 -0.5 *
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- 5000.0 -0.4 *
Houttuynia cordata Shoot -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Seed 10000.0 30000.0 -0.2 Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Humulus lupulus Flower 2000.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Humulus lupulus Fruit 3000.0 10000.0 -0.6 Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 160.0 2300.0 -0.3 *
Hydrangea arborescens Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hypericum perforatum Plant 500.0 9000.0 -0.1 *
Hypericum perforatum Flower -- 2500.0 -0.3 *
Hypericum perforatum Shoot 700.0 1250.0 -0.8 *
Hypericum perforatum Seed -- 3300.0 -0.5 Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Hyptis suaveolens Plant -- 15000.0 0.4 Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 74.
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 2500.0 -0.7 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis emoryi Plant -- 4000.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 2500.0 -0.7 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 14000.0 0.3 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Plant 300.0 20000.0 0.8 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 14000.0 0.3 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Ilex paraguariensis Leaf -- 3000.0 -0.8 *
Illicium verum Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Illicium verum Fruit 50000.0 100000.0 1.1 *
Illicium verum Seed -- 25000.0 -0.2 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Inula helenium Plant 5700.0 54000.0 3.4 *
Inula helenium Fruit 10000.0 40000.0 -0.0 *
Iris x germanica Rhizome 1000.0 20000.0 -0.4 *
Isanthus brachiatus Plant -- 1000.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Jasminum officinale Flower 2400.0 3800.0 -0.3 *
Jateorhiza palmata Root 700.0 15000.0 0.1 *
Juglans regia Leaf 100.0 300.0 -1.0 *
Juniperus sabina Shoot 30000.0 50000.0 3.7 *
Juniperus oxycedrus Fruit 13000.0 15000.0 -0.5 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Juniperus communis Leaf -- -- *
Juniperus oxycedrus Wood -- 15000.0 -0.9 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Juniperus communis Fruit 6200.0 40000.0 -0.0 *
Juniperus virginiana Wood 15000.0 45000.0 0.0 *
Juniperus oxycedrus Leaf -- 100.0 -1.0 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Juniperus virginiana Leaf -- 2000.0 -0.8 *
Juniperus macropoda Fruit 6600.0 20400.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lagochilus inebrians Plant 300.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Lantana camara Leaf 500.0 3200.0 -0.7 *
Lantana camara Flower -- 700.0 -0.4 *
Lantana camara Shoot -- 1000.0 -0.9 *
Larrea tridentata Plant 329.0 2500.0 -0.6 *
Laurus nobilis Bark -- 6800.0 -0.4 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- 5700.0 -0.5 *
Laurus nobilis Flower -- 1800.0 -0.4 *
Laurus nobilis Fruit 10000.0 40000.0 -0.0 *
Laurus nobilis Wood -- 700.0 -1.3 *
Lavandula x intermedia Plant 10000.0 18000.0 0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x hybrida Shoot 5500.0 7000.0 -0.3 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Lavandula latifolia Plant 5000.0 11000.0 0.1 *
Lavandula angustifolia Flower 3000.0 40000.0 0.9 *
Lawsonia inermis Flower 100.0 200.0 -0.4 *
Ledum palustre Leaf 3000.0 25000.0 1.2 *
Leonotis leonurus Se -- -- Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Leonotis nepetaefolia Seed -- 20000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 100.0 500.0 -0.7 *
Lepechinia calycina Plant -- 5000.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lepechinia schiediana Plant -- 4000.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lepidium sativum Plant -- 1150.0 -0.7 *
Levisticum officinale Plant 500.0 2450.0 -0.6 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Levisticum officinale Seed 8000.0 11000.0 -0.4 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Levisticum officinale Root 1000.0 18000.0 0.2 *
Limonia acidissima Leaf -- 7300.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lindera benzoin Fruit 4140.0 4260.0 -0.7 *
Lindera benzoin Twig -- 700.0 -1.0 *
Lindera benzoin Leaf -- 200.0 -1.0 *
Lippia alba Leaf -- 1200.0 -0.9 Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Lippia javanica Plant -- -- Neidlein, R., Staehle, R. 1974. Constituents of Lippia javanica. III. Deutsche Apot. Ziit., 114: 1588.
Liquidambar orientalis Resin, Exudate, Sap 5000.0 10000.0 -1.6 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Resin, Exudate, Sap 150000.0 200000.0 0.6 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Leaf -- 800.0 -0.9 *
Litsea glaucescens Shoot 2100.0 2300.0 -0.7 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Lycium chinense Leaf -- 100.0 -1.0 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lycopus virginicus Plant 800.0 2000.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus americanus Plant -- 500.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus uniflorus Plant -- 500.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus europeus Plant 500.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Magnolia officinalis Bark 3000.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Malus domestica Fruit 25.0 35.0 -0.8 *
Mangifera indica Flower -- 400.0 -0.4 *
Marrubium vulgare Plant 500.0 600.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Marsdenia reichenbachii Plant -- 100.0 -0.7 *
Matricaria recutita Flower 2400.0 20000.0 0.2 *
Melaleuca cajuputi Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf 10000.0 26000.0 1.3 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf 10000.0 25000.0 1.2 *
Melaleuca leucadendra Twig -- 13000.0 1.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca bracteata Leaf 4000.0 10000.0 -0.1 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca leucadendra Leaf -- 13000.0 0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca linariifolia Leaf 15000.0 20000.0 0.7 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Melia azedarach Plant -- 200.0 -0.7 *
Melilotus officinalis Flower -- 130.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Melissa officinalis Shoot 100.0 8000.0 -0.2 *
Mentha pulegium Plant 10000.0 20000.0 0.8 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant 10000.0 32100.0 1.7 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 1700.0 -0.8 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Leaf 3000.0 8500.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha pulegium Tissue Culture -- -- *
Mentha x piperita Plant 1000.0 40000.0 2.3 *
Mentha longifolia Plant 10000.0 38000.0 2.1 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 1100.0 -0.9 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha x piperita Leaf 2980.0 30000.0 1.6 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 1500.0 -0.8 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha pulegium Leaf -- 9200.0 -0.2 *
Mentha spicata Leaf 1000.0 25000.0 1.2 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 1600.0 -0.8 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 1100.0 -0.9 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha x rotundifolia Leaf 600.0 10000.0 -0.1 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Mentha pulegium Shoot 3500.0 20000.0 0.9 *
Menyanthes trifoliata Leaf 670.0 700.0 -1.0 *
Mercurialis annua Root -- 800.0 -0.6 *
Micromeria juliana Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 24000.0 1.3 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria congesta Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- 300.0 -0.9 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 24000.0 1.3 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria thymifolia Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria dalmatica Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 3000.0 -0.7 *
Micromeria fruticosa Leaf -- 30000.0 1.6 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria teneriffae Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria croatica Leaf -- 10000.0 -0.1 *
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 3000.0 -0.7 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Minthostachys mollis Shoot 700.0 900.0 -0.9 Alkire, B.H., Tucker, A.O., and Maciarello, M.J. 1994. Tipo (Minthostachys mollis (Lamiaceae): An Ecuadorian Mint. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 60-64.
Mitracarpus scaber Shoot -- 400.0 -0.9 I. Laakso, T.O.E. Ekpendu, A.A. Adesomoju, O. Eundayo, J. I. Okogun, (1993); Constituents of the volatile oil of Mitracarpus scaber Zucc., Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 269-271.
Moldavica thymiflora Plant -- 2000.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Moldavica parviflora Plant -- 1000.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda media Plant -- 7000.0 -0.2 *
Monarda didyma Shoot 1000.0 10000.0 -0.0 *
Monarda clinopodia Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Monarda citriodora Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 *
Monarda citriodora Leaf -- 7000.0 -0.4 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda russeliana Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Monarda lindheimeri Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Monarda didyma Leaf 7000.0 13000.0 0.1 *
Monarda citriodora Flower -- 10000.0 -0.1 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda punctata Plant 10000.0 30000.0 1.5 *
Monarda fistulosa Plant 3000.0 31000.0 1.6 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Monarda didyma Flower -- 3700.0 -0.3 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Murraya koenigii Leaf 2300.0 26000.0 1.3 *
Myrica cerifera Bark 436.0 4000.0 -0.6 *
Myrica cerifera Plant 2000.0 4000.0 -0.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Myristica fragrans Leaf 4100.0 6200.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Myristica fragrans Bark -- 1400.0 -0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Myristica fragrans Seed 20000.0 160000.0 1.5 *
Myristica fragrans Aril 40000.0 150000.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Myroxylon balsamum Gum -- -- *
Myrtus communis Plant 1667.0 5900.0 -0.3 *
Myrtus communis Leaf 1000.0 5000.0 -0.6 *
Narcissus tazetta Flower 2100.0 4500.0 -0.3 *
Nardostachys jatamansi Root 19000.0 20000.0 0.3 *
Nardostachys chinensis Rhizome 10000.0 32000.0 -0.2 *
Nasturtium officinale Plant 600.0 660.0 -0.7 *
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 11000.0 0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta cilicia Shoot -- 1000.0 -0.9 *
Nepeta cataria Plant 2000.0 13000.0 0.2 Bourrel, C., Perineau, F., Michel, G., Bessiere, J.M. 1993. Catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) Essential Oil: Analysis of Chemical Constituents, Bacteriostatic and Fungistatic Properties. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 159-167.
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 11000.0 0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nerium oleander Flower -- 300.0 -0.4 *
Nigella sativa Seed Oil -- 4500.0 *
Nigella sativa Seed 4000.0 16000.0 -0.3 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 1000.0 9000.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Shoot 5000.0 10000.0 -0.0 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 2500.0 -0.6 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum gratissimum Leaf 12000.0 14700.0 0.3 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Ocimum canum Shoot 3800.0 6500.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 21000.0 1.0 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum basilicum Shoot -- -- *
Ocimum suave Shoot -- 4000.0 -0.6 J. Nat. Prod. 44: 308.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Leaf 7700.0 11200.0 -0.0 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 2500.0 -0.6 Die Nahrung. Pino, J., Rosado, A., Goire, I., Roncal, E., and Garcia, I. 1993. Analysis of the Essential Oil from Cuban Basil. Die Nahrung 37:(5): 501-504.
Ocimum gratissimum Flower 13400.0 16700.0 0.1 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Ocimum gratissimum Seed -- 2700.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum sanctum Leaf 6000.0 7000.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower 19600.0 28000.0 0.5 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum gratissimum Stem -- 1400.0 -0.4 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Ocimum gratissimum Plant 1000.0 6000.0 -0.3 *
Oenanthe aquatica Fruit 10000.0 25000.0 -0.3 *
Ononis spinosa Root 200.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Opopanax chironium Resin, Exudate, Sap 30000.0 65000.0 -0.9 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 25000.0 1.4 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1300.0 -0.6 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum majorana Essential Oil -- -- *
Origanum creticum Plant 14000.0 30000.0 1.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 400.0 -0.7 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 31000.0 1.9 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 2200.0 -0.7 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum vulgare Plant 1500.0 10000.0 0.0 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 33000.0 2.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 34000.0 1.8 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 31000.0 1.9 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 16800.0 0.6 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 17000.0 0.6 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 800.0 -0.7 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- 4800.0 -0.5 Isaev, V. 1932. Essential Oils of the Flora of Tadshikistan. Acta Hortii Bot Tadshikistan 1932: 17-.
Origanum majorana Plant 3000.0 30000.0 1.5 *
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- 45000.0 3.2 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 22400.0 24400.0 1.3 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 31000.0 1.9 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 17000.0 0.6 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark 1500.0 4000.0 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Paeonia officinalis Root -- 4000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia lactiflora Root -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Panax ginseng Root 100.0 500.0 -0.6 *
Panax quinquefolius Root -- -- *
Passiflora edulis Fruit Juice 23.0 43.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pavonia odorata Root -- 5000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pelargonium citrosum Shoot -- 2000.0 -0.8 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium roseum Shoot -- 18000.0 0.7 *
Pelargonium graveolens Plant 800.0 4000.0 -0.4 *
Perilla frutescens Stem -- 500.0 -0.5 Janicki, J., Tobolewicz, I. 1953. Perilla ocymoides-A Raw material for the Production of Natural Oils. Przem Rolny Spozyw, 7: 56-.
Perilla frutescens Plant 1000.0 13000.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Perilla frutescens Leaf -- 10400.0 -0.1 Janicki, J., Tobolewicz, I. 1953. Perilla ocymoides-A Raw material for the Production of Natural Oils. Przem Rolny Spozyw, 7: 56-.
Persea americana Leaf 5000.0 31000.0 1.7 *
Petasites hybridus Leaf -- 1000.0 -0.9 Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Petroselinum crispum Seed 15000.0 70000.0 0.3 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Petroselinum crispum Root 500.0 5000.0 -0.4 *
Petroselinum crispum Fruit -- 600.0 -0.8 *
Petroselinum crispum Leaf 600.0 3000.0 -0.8 *
Petroselinum crispum Plant 40.0 3000.0 -0.5 *
Peucedanum ostruthium Root 2000.0 14000.0 0.0 *
Peumus boldus Leaf 16000.0 30000.0 1.6 *
Phellodendron amurense Fruit -- -- *
Picea mariana Twig -- 4610.0 -0.2 *
Picea glauca Twig -- 3000.0 -0.5 *
Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaf 2500.0 3000.0 -0.8 *
Pilocarpus jaborandi Leaf -- 5000.0 -0.6 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 20000.0 50000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimenta racemosa Leaf 7500.0 39000.0 2.4 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 7500.0 12500.0 0.1 *
Pimpinella anisum Plant 10000.0 60000.0 3.8 *
Pimpinella anisum Seed 6100.0 140000.0 1.2 *
Pimpinella anisum Tissue Culture -- -- *
Pinellia ternata Tuber 30.0 130.0 *
Pinus palustris Resin, Exudate, Sap 200000.0 250000.0 1.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Pinus elliottii Resin, Exudate, Sap 200000.0 250000.0 1.2 *
Pinus palustris Leaf -- 4000.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus sylvestris Root -- -- *
Pinus elliottii Leaf -- 3000.0 -0.8 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus walliciana Leaf -- 5000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus strobus Root -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Leaf 2000.0 5000.0 -0.6 *
Pinus mugo Leaf 1200.0 6100.0 -0.5 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Piper nigrum Fruit -- 15000.0 -0.5 *
Piper auritum Leaf 4700.0 5800.0 -0.5 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Piper cubeba Fruit Essent. Oil -- 118500.0 *
Piper cubeba Fruit 50000.0 200000.0 3.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Piper angustifolium Leaf 9000.0 35000.0 2.1 *
Piper betel Leaf 2000.0 42000.0 2.7 *
Pistacia lentiscus Leaf 10000.0 30000.0 1.6 *
Plantago major Plant -- 2000.0 -0.6 *
Plectranthus incanus Shoot -- 3500.0 -0.6 Shah, G.C., Bhandari, R. & Mathela, C.S. 1992. 1,2-Epoxy-p-Menthane Derivatives from some Labiatae Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 57-59.
Plectranthus coleoides Shoot -- 6000.0 -0.4 Buchbauer, G., Jorovetz, L., Wasicky, M. and Nikiforov, A. 1993. Volatile Constituents of the Headspace and Essential Oil of Plectranthus coleoides Marginatus (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 311-313.
Podophyllum hexandrum Rhizome 2590.0 5550.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pogostemon cablin Plant 15000.0 58000.0 3.7 *
Polianthes tuberosa Flower 800.0 15000.0 0.1 *
Populus tacamahacca Bulb -- 20000.0 1.2 *
Populus nigra Bulb -- 5000.0 -0.7 *
Porophyllum ruderale Plant 3000.0 4500.0 -0.4 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Prunella vulgaris Plant -- 5000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus serotina Stem Bark -- 2000.0 1.0 *
Prunus cerasus Seed -- 10000.0 -0.4 *
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf -- 500.0 -1.0 *
Prunus armeniaca Seed 8000.0 16000.0 -0.3 *
Prunus dulcis Seed 5000.0 18000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Psidium guajava Leaf 2600.0 3600.0 -0.7 *
Psoralea corylifolia Seed 500.0 200000.0 2.0 *
Pteridium aquilinum Rhizome -- 1800.0 -0.7 *
Pterocarpus santalinus Wood -- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Wood -- 500.0 -1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pueraria montana Leaf Essent. Oil -- 120.0 *
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 20000.0 31000.0 1.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum montanum Shoot 7000.0 8000.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosum Flower 39000.0 58000.0 1.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum flexuosum Shoot -- 12000.0 0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum californicum Shoot -- 36000.0 2.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum torreyi Shoot -- 10000.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides Shoot 39000.0 58000.0 4.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum loomisii Shoot 31000.0 42000.0 2.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum curvipes Shoot -- 21000.0 1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum nudum Shoot 25000.0 26000.0 1.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum beadlei Shoot -- 7000.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianum Shoot 6000.0 29000.0 1.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Shoot 2000.0 20000.0 0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosum Leaf 39000.0 58000.0 4.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum incanum Shoot 11000.0 19000.0 0.8 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides Shoot 21000.0 22000.0 1.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum muticum Shoot 29000.0 50000.0 3.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum verticillatum Shoot -- 21000.0 1.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Quassia amara Root -- -- *
Quercus alba Bark 100.0 500.0 -0.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ravensara aromatica Bark -- 22000.0 1.0 *
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 20000.0 0.7 *
Rheum rhabarbarum Root -- -- *
Rheum palmatum Rhizome -- 500.0 -0.7 *
Ribes nigrum Bulb -- 7500.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ribes nigrum Leaf -- 200.0 -1.0 *
Robinia pseudoacacia Leaf -- 100.0 -1.0 *
Rosa canina Seed 2000.0 3000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa gallica Flower 270.0 360.0 -0.4 *
Rosa damascena Flower 250.0 500.0 -0.4 *
Rosa centifolia Flower -- 2000.0 -0.4 *
Rosmarinus x mendizabalii Shoot 3900.0 5500.0 -0.4 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 5500.0 8700.0 -0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 6200.0 12600.0 0.2 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 3300.0 25000.0 1.2 *
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 5500.0 8700.0 -0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceus Shoot 3200.0 9900.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 6200.0 12600.0 0.2 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 1400.0 -0.9 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalis Tissue Culture -- -- *
Rosmarinus tomentosus Shoot 8000.0 9900.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 5400.0 -0.5 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 1400.0 -0.9 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Ruscus aculeatus Root 302.0 3000.0 -0.5 *
Ruscus aculeatus Plant 1000.0 3000.0 -0.5 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Ruta graveolens Leaf 600.0 7000.0 -0.4 *
Salvia gilliesii Shoot -- 5000.0 -0.5 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Salvia officinalis Plant 5000.0 28000.0 1.4 *
Salvia officinalis Leaf -- 20000.0 0.7 *
Salvia dorisiana Shoot -- 1000.0 -0.9 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Salvia triloba Plant 10000.0 30000.0 1.5 *
Salvia canariensis Leaf -- 7000.0 -0.4 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Salvia sclarea Plant 400.0 5000.0 -0.4 *
Sambucus nigra Flower 37.0 3200.0 -0.3 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Santalum acuminatum Wood -- 50000.0 0.2 *
Santalum album Wood 15000.0 62500.0 0.6 *
Santalum album Root -- 100000.0 4.1 *
Santolina chamaecyparissus Flower -- 8600.0 -0.1 *
Sarracenia flava Flower -- 180.0 -0.4 *
Sarracenia flava Shoot -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Root 10000.0 90000.0 3.6 *
Sassafras albidum Leaf 150.0 330.0 -1.0 *
Satureja subspicata Plant -- 1000.0 -0.7 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja grandiflora Shoot -- 3900.0 -0.6 Carnat, A., Chossegros, A., and Lamaison, J. 1991. The Essential Oil of Satureja grandiflora (L.) Scheele from France. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 361-362
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 24100.0 1.1 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja montana Plant 1500.0 23000.0 1.0 *
Satureja glabella Plant 10000.0 10600.0 0.1 *
Satureja parvifolia Shoot -- 5000.0 -0.5 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja obovata Shoot 10000.0 11000.0 0.1 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Satureja cuneifolia Shoot -- 18900.0 0.8 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 22600.0 1.0 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja hortensis Plant 1500.0 20000.0 0.8 *
Satureja douglasii Plant -- 13000.0 0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja thymbra Shoot -- 37000.0 2.5 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Satureja odora Shoot -- 5000.0 -0.5 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 9800.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja cilicica Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 22600.0 1.0 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja vulgaris Plant -- 500.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja hortensis Leaf -- 4000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Saussurea lappa Root 15000.0 70000.0 2.6 *
Schinus terebinthifolius Seed 250000.0 450000.0 5.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Schinus molle Flower -- 21000.0 0.3 *
Schinus molle Leaf 2000.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Schinus molle Fruit 33500.0 52000.0 0.2 *
Schisandra chinensis Bark -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Leaf -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit 10000.0 30000.0 -0.2 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Schisandra chinensis Branches -- -- *
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Plant -- 18000.0 0.6 *
Scutellaria galericulata Plant -- 600.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant 411.0 3000.0 -0.5 *
Scutellaria churchilliana Plant -- 300.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Scutellaria parvula Plant -- 900.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Senna occidentalis Seed 175.0 182.0 -0.5 *
Serenoa repens Fruit 5400.0 20000.0 -0.4 *
Sideritis pauli Shoot -- 3200.0 -0.7 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Sideritis athoa Shoot -- 2500.0 -0.7 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Sideritis mugronensis Leaf 1100.0 1600.0 -0.9 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis mugronensis Flower 3200.0 4400.0 -0.3 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis scardica Shoot -- 4350.0 -0.6 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Sideritis germanicolpitana Plant -- 3300.0 -0.5 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Silybum marianum Seed -- 1000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Simarouba amara Bark 1000.0 1800.0 -0.8 *
Sinapis alba Seed 1000.0 2000.0 -0.5 *
Skimmia arborescens Leaf 5000.0 24000.0 1.1 *
Smilax spp Root -- 300.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Solanum tuberosum Plant -- 2.0 -0.7 *
Stachys germanica Plant -- 800.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Stachytarpheta cayennensis Plant 350.0 700.0 -0.7 *
Stellaria media Plant 83.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf 250.0 4300.0 -0.6 *
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- 4300.0 -0.3 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stillingia sylvatica Plant 30000.0 40000.0 2.3 Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Synedrella nodiflora Flower -- 43000.0 1.0 Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Synedrella nodiflora Leaf -- 4000.0 -0.7 Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Syringa vulgaris Flower 2400.0 3600.0 -0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit 150000.0 210000.0 3.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Stem 40000.0 60000.0 2.6 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 155000.0 210000.0 6.6 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 20000.0 32000.0 1.8 *
Tagetes lucida Shoot -- 6000.0 -0.4 Bicchi, C., Fresia, M., Rubiolo, P., Monti, D., Franz, C., Goehler, I. 1997. Constituents of Tagetes lucida Cav. ssp. lucida essential oil. Flavor & Fragrance, 12(1): 47-52.
Tagetes erecta Plant -- 1000.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tagetes minuta Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Tagetes patula Plant -- 1500.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tagetes filifolia Shoot -- 4700.0 -0.5 *
Tagetes minuta Plant 1870.0 5000.0 -0.4 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Tanacetum vulgare Plant 4000.0 5000.0 -0.4 *
Tanacetum parthenium Plant 200.0 700.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- 1500.0 -0.8 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Taraxacum officinale Root 715.0 5000.0 -0.4 *
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 100.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium arduini Shoot -- 700.0 -0.9 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Teucrium scordium Plant -- 1500.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanum Plant -- 1000.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium gnaphalodes Shoot -- 500.0 -0.9 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium scorodonia Shoot -- 2900.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium asiaticum Shoot -- 100.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 100.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium polium Shoot 400.0 900.0 -0.9 Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium salviastrum Shoot -- 100.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium micropodioides Leaf -- 4000.0 -0.7 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium divaricatum Leaf -- 3000.0 -0.8 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium polium Shoot -- 500.0 -0.9 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium arduini Shoot -- 700.0 -0.9 Blazevic, N., Kalodera, Z., Petricic, J., and Plazibat, M. 1992. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Teucrium arduini L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 223-225.
Teucrium scorodonia Shoot -- 2900.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrys Plant -- 700.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Teucrium pseudoscorodonia Shoot -- 100.0 -0.9 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium kotschyanum Leaf -- 9000.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium cyprium Leaf -- 13000.0 0.1 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Theobroma cacao Plant -- 10.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thuja occidentalis Branches 6000.0 10000.0 -0.2 *
Thymus orospedanus Plant -- 17500.0 0.6 *
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus x citriodorus Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 1344.0 26000.0 1.3 *
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 7100.0 -0.3 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus vulgaris Plant 4000.0 34000.0 1.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus riatarum Shoot -- 12000.0 0.2 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 17000.0 0.6 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 14600.0 0.4 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Thymus serpyllum Plant 1500.0 19100.0 0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus zygis Plant -- 10000.0 0.0 *
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 8000.0 -0.2 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 20000.0 60000.0 0.3 *
Trachyspermum ammi Plant -- 15200.0 0.4 *
Trichostemma dichotomum Shoot -- 800.0 -0.9 Tucker, A.O. and Maciarello, M.J. 1990. The Essential Oil of Trichostemma dichotomum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 2: 149-150.
Trifolium pratense Flower -- 1700.0 -0.4 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed -- 100.0 -0.5 *
Tropaeolum majus Shoot -- 300.0 -0.9 *
Tsuga canadensis Branches 4000.0 4600.0 -1.1 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 2100.0 10000.0 -0.1 *
Umbellularia californica Essential Oil -- 46900.0 0.3 *
Umbellularia californica Stem 5600.0 11300.0 0.1 *
Valeriana officinalis Leaf 2300.0 28000.0 1.4 *
Valeriana officinalis Root Essent. Oil -- 5000.0 *
Valeriana officinalis Root 590.0 20000.0 0.3 *
Valeriana jatamansi Root 5000.0 30000.0 0.8 *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- 6000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Verbena officinalis Plant -- -- *
Vetiveria zizanioides Root -- 15000.0 0.1 *
Viburnum opulus Bark 1000.0 3000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viburnum prunifolium Bark 2800.0 3300.0 -0.7 *
Viola odorata Flower 300.0 1700.0 -0.4 *
Viola odorata Essential Oil 900.0 1200.0 -1.3 *
Viola tricolor Plant -- 86.0 -0.7 *
Viola odorata Root -- 380.0 -0.6 *
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit 4000.0 12000.0 -0.6 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf -- 230.0 -1.0 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vitex agnus-castus Flower 3000.0 7600.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Xylopia aethiopica Fruit -- 20000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Xylopia aethiopica Seed -- 13000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Yucca baccata Root 208.0 2000.0 -0.6 *
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Plant -- 33000.0 1.8 Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Zanthoxylum alatum Fruit 15000.0 23000.0 -0.4 *
Zanthoxylum alatum Leaf -- 400.0 -1.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zea mays Silk Stigma Style 800.0 1200.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 10000.0 -0.5 *
Zingiber officinale Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 60000.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinale Or 800.0 50000.0 *
Zingiber officinale Root 700.0 30000.0 0.8 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.