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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 7.0 -0.5 *
Zingiber officinale Root 3.0 16.0 0.5 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome 3.0 16.0 1.2 *
Zea mays Fruit -- 20.0 0.6 *
Xanthosoma sagittifolium Root 1.9 14.0 0.3 *
Vitis vinifera Fruit 0.7 11.6 -0.1 *
Vigna radiata Seed 9.0 13.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifolia Seed 5.0 9.0 -0.5 *
Vigna mungo Seed 7.2 8.0 -0.6 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 9.0 10.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 1.0 23.0 1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularis Seed 11.0 13.0 -0.2 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 1.3 12.0 -0.3 *
Vicia faba Fruit -- 1.7 -0.9 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Valerianella radicata Plant 11.1 11.3 -0.3 *
Valerianella locusta Plant 13.0 13.2 -0.1 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Fruit 0.7 5.2 -0.6 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 0.5 4.0 -0.7 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 0.7 6.3 -0.5 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit 0.5 4.7 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Urtica dioica Leaf 2.0 15.0 -0.3 *
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 20.0 0.9 *
Triticum aestivum Seed 1.1 16.7 0.2 *
Triticum aestivum Plant 2.2 4.0 -1.1 *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Leaf -- 3.0 -0.7 *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed -- 11.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Trifolium pratense Hay 7.0 18.0 *
Trichosanthes anguina Fruit 1.1 20.0 0.6 *
Tragopogon porrifolius Root -- 1.0 -1.2 *
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit -- 9.1 -0.3 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 8.0 9.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Theobroma cacao Seed -- 24.0 0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tetrapanax papyrifera Pith -- 8.0 *
Tephrosia candida Plant -- 11.2 -0.3 *
Taraxacum officinale Leaf 4.0 49.0 0.6 *
Taraxacum mongolicum Plant -- 19.0 0.6 *
Taraxacum officinale Root 3.0 28.0 1.8 *
Tamarindus indica Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Syzygium jambos Fruit 0.1 0.6 -1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 3.0 9.0 -0.8 *
Syzygium cumini Fruit 2.3 14.0 0.1 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit 3.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Stem 3.8 132.0 0.4 *
Spondias dulcis Fruit -- 0.9 -0.9 *
Spondias tuberosa Fruit -- 0.63 -0.9 *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 0.1 24.0 1.1 *
Sorbus aucubaria Fruit 0.8 4.0 -0.7 *
Sophora subprostrata Root -- 5.0 -0.7 *
Sophora angustifolia Root 5.0 10.0 -0.2 *
Solanum melongena Fruit 0.6 20.0 0.6 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 0.48 14.0 0.3 *
Sinomenium acutum Rhizome -- 16.0 1.2 *
Sinapis alba Seed 6.0 8.0 -0.6 *
Simmondsia chinensis Seed -- 10.0 -0.4 *
Siegesbeckia orientalis Plant 9.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Sesamum indicum Plant 14.0 56.0 4.6 *
Senna occidentalis Seed -- 15.0 0.0 *
Senna obtusifolia Seed 9.0 32.0 1.6 *
Sechium edule Leaf 1.8 10.0 -0.5 *
Secale cereale Seed 4.0 5.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria baicalensis Root 13.0 18.0 0.7 *
Scrophularia buergeriana Root 5.0 6.0 -0.6 *
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Plant -- 23.0 1.0 *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit 5.0 11.0 -0.1 *
Satureja hortensis Leaf 8.0 9.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Satureja montana Leaf 8.0 9.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sassafras albidum Stem 0.2 56.0 -0.2 *
Sassafras albidum Leaf 1.6 102.0 2.0 *
Santalum acuminatum Fruit 2.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Salvia miltiorrhiza Root -- 8.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Salvia officinalis Leaf 7.0 8.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rumex acetosa Leaf 3.0 30.0 0.1 *
Rubus chamaemorus Fruit 0.7 5.6 -0.6 *
Rubus idaeus Fruit 0.7 6.0 -0.5 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rubus chingii Fruit -- 12.0 -0.1 *
Rubia cordifolia Root -- 15.0 0.4 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 5.0 6.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 3.0 19.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosa laevigata Fruit 8.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Rosa canina Fruit 1.8 36.0 1.8 *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit 0.4 6.0 -0.5 *
Ribes rubrum Fruit 0.5 7.0 -0.5 *
Ribes nigrum Fruit 0.6 7.0 -0.5 *
Rhus glabra Stem 0.6 20.0 -0.5 *
Rhus copallina Stem 1.8 30.0 -0.5 *
Rhus copallina Leaf 0.8 19.0 -0.2 *
Rhizophora mangle Leaf -- 35.0 0.2 *
Rheum rhabarbarum Pt 0.2 5.2 -1.0 *
Rheum palmatum Rhizome 6.0 10.0 -0.1 *
Rehmannia glutinosa Root -- 4.0 -0.9 *
Raphanus sativus Seed -- 6.0 -0.8 *
Raphanus sativus Root 0.3 8.0 -0.4 *
Quisqualis indica Fruit -- 13.0 0.0 *
Quercus rubra Stem 1.2 13.2 -0.6 *
Quercus alba Stem 1.2 15.2 -0.6 *
Quercus velutina Stem 1.5 31.0 -0.5 *
Quercus rubra Seed -- 7.0 -0.7 *
Quercus stellata Stem 1.2 42.0 -0.4 *
Quercus phellos Stem 1.0 29.0 -0.5 *
Pyrus communis Fruit 0.45 11.1 -0.1 *
Punica granatum Fruit -- 2.0 -0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pulsatilla chinensis Root -- 9.0 -0.3 *
Pueraria pseudohirsuta Root 12.0 13.0 0.1 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 28.0 33.0 1.6 *
Psidium guajava Fruit 1.0 9.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persica Seed -- 10.0 -0.4 *
Prunus domestica Fruit 0.33 34.0 1.6 *
Prunus persica Fruit 0.3 30.0 1.3 *
Prunus armeniaca Seed 1.0 16.0 0.1 *
Prunus serotina Stem 1.3 378.0 2.5 *
Prunus dulcis Seed 1.0 11.0 -0.3 *
Prunus serotina Leaf 0.8 29.0 0.0 *
Prunella vulgaris Flower -- 8.0 -1.0 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Portulaca oleracea Herb 2.0 19.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Polystichum polyblepharum Plant -- 10.0 -0.4 *
Polygonum multiflorum Rhizome -- 5.0 -1.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Polygala tenuifolia Root 8.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Platycodon grandiflorum Root 6.0 10.0 -0.2 *
Plantago asiatica Plant -- 14.0 -0.0 *
Pisum sativum Seed 2.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Pistacia vera Seed 11.0 33.0 1.6 *
Piper nigrum Fruit 9.0 20.0 0.6 *
Pinus edulis Seed 10.0 12.0 -0.3 *
Pinus echinata Shoot 0.8 2.1 -1.4 *
Pinus pinea Seed 10.0 11.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinellia ternata Tuber 2.0 4.0 -1.1 *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- 9.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pimenta dioica Bud 5.0 10.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Physalis ixocarpa Fruit 1.0 16.0 0.2 *
Physalis peruviana Fruit 2.0 11.0 -0.1 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 3.0 14.0 0.1 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 2.0 4.0 -0.7 *
Phoenix dactylifera Seed 0.6 2.0 -1.2 Abstract (See species file)
Phellodendron amurense Bark -- 6.0 -0.5 *
Phaseolus acutifolius Seed 10.0 11.0 -0.3 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 0.62 45.0 2.5 *
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 3.0 15.0 0.0 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 2.0 15.0 0.0 *
Phaseolus coccineus Seed -- 0.7 -1.3 *
Peucedanum decursivum Plant 9.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Petroselinum crispum Plant 1.0 12.0 -0.2 *
Petasites japonicus Plant 15.0 16.0 0.2 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Persea americana Fruit 2.0 11.0 -0.1 *
Perilla frutescens Plant -- 17.0 0.3 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Peganum harmala Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 *
Pastinaca sativa Root 0.8 12.0 0.0 *
Papaver somniferum Seed 16.0 23.0 0.7 *
Panax ginseng Inflorescence -- -- *
Panax ginseng Leaf -- -- *
Panax japonicus Rhizome -- 6.0 -1.0 *
Panax ginseng Fruit -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root -- 17.0 0.6 *
Panax ginseng Flower -- -- *
Panax ginseng Stem -- -- *
Panax quinquefolius Plant 6.0 13.0 -0.1 *
Paeonia moutan Root Bark 5.0 6.0 -0.8 *
Paeonia lactiflora Root 3.0 6.0 -0.6 *
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark 5.0 6.0 -0.8 *
Pachyrhizus erosus Tuber 4.0 25.0 1.9 *
Origanum majorana Plant -- 11.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 9.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Opuntia ficus-indica Seed -- 3.4 -1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ophiopogon japonicus Tuber 3.0 4.0 -1.1 *
Oenothera biennis Seed 11.0 13.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf -- 14.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nyssa sylvatica Stem 0.3 31.0 -0.5 *
Nyssa sylvatica Leaf 1.25 182.0 4.2 *
Notopterygium incisum Rhizome -- 7.0 -0.8 *
Nelumbo nucifera Seed -- 17.0 0.2 *
Nasturtium officinale Plant -- -- *
Nardostachys chinensis Rhizome -- 10.0 -0.1 *
Myristica fragrans Aril 6.0 25.0 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 10.0 21.0 0.6 *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 0.76 6.0 -0.5 *
Murraya sp Fruit 0.76 6.0 -0.5 *
Morus alba Root Bark -- 6.0 -0.8 *
Moringa oleifera Leaf 1.0 4.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Morinda sp Root 6.0 7.0 -0.5 *
Momordica charantia Fruit -- 30.0 1.3 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Mentha spicata Plant 1.0 17.0 0.3 *
Mentha x piperita Plant 3.0 15.0 0.1 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- 20.0 0.7 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Manihot esculenta Root 1.0 3.8 -0.9 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 1.1 16.6 0.3 *
Malus domestica Fruit 0.24 4.0 -0.7 *
Magnolia officinalis Bark -- 8.0 0.7 *
Magnolia denudata Flower -- 16.0 0.3 *
Magnolia kobus Flower -- 16.0 0.3 *
Magnolia fargesii Flower -- 16.0 0.3 *
Macadamia spp Seed 2.0 3.0 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lygodium japonicum Pollen Or Spore -- 13.0 *
Lycopodium clavatum Plant -- 8.0 -0.7 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 0.4 100.0 6.8 *
Lycium chinense Fruit -- 15.0 0.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycium chinense Root Bark -- 17.0 1.7 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lupinus albus Seed 10.0 12.0 -0.3 *
Lophatherum gracile Plant 8.0 9.0 -0.6 *
Lonicera japonica Flower -- 13.0 -0.2 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Stem 0.6 360.0 2.4 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Leaf 2.8 164.0 3.8 *
Linum usitatissimum Seed 17.0 23.0 0.7 Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.
Ligustrum lucidum Fruit -- 12.0 -0.1 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Ligustrum japonicum Fruit -- 12.0 -0.1 *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- 60.0 5.3 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Lens culinaris Seed 8.0 9.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 3.3 12.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- 4.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lactuca sativa Leaf 0.36 29.0 0.0 *
Lablab purpureus Seed 9.0 16.0 0.1 *
Jussiaea repens Plant -- 15.0 0.1 *
Juniperus virginiana Shoot 0.8 17.6 -0.5 *
Juncus effusus Pith 5.0 8.0 *
Juglans cinerea Seed 4.0 8.4 -0.6 *
Juglans regia Seed 3.0 15.0 0.0 *
Juglans nigra Seed 10.0 20.0 0.5 *
Isatis tinctoria Root -- 10.0 -0.2 *
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 2.6 19.0 -0.2 *
Ipomoea batatas Root 1.5 7.0 -0.5 *
Inula helenium Plant -- -- *
Hyoscyamus niger Seed -- 26.0 1.0 *
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- 26.0 1.3 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Hordeum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- 8.0 -1.0 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Hordeum vulgare Seed 1.0 20.0 0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower 5.6 6.2 -1.3 *
Helianthus annuus Seed 15.0 19.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosus Plant 8.0 30.0 1.8 Bonness, M. S., Promising new drugs from plants: poisons that heal, Herbarist, #56, 1990, 59-68
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root 13.0 14.0 0.3 *
Glycine max Seed 4.3 18.0 0.3 *
Glehnia littoralis Root -- 15.0 0.4 *
Glechoma hederacea Plant -- 11.0 -0.3 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Ginkgo biloba Seed 3.0 6.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 23.0 1.0 *
Gentiana scabra Root -- 18.0 0.7 *
Genipa americana Fruit -- 1.0 -0.9 *
Genipa americana Seed -- -- *
Gastrodia elata Rhizome -- 4.0 -1.5 *
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit 10.0 13.0 0.0 *
Fritillaria thunbergii Bulb -- 12.0 1.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Fraxinus rhynchophylla Bark -- 6.0 -0.5 *
Fragaria spp Fruit 0.4 17.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Forsythia suspensa Fruit -- 19.0 0.5 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 8.0 24.0 0.9 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 8.0 24.0 0.8 *
Firmiana simplex Seed -- 15.0 0.0 *
Ficus carica Fruit 0.6 3.6 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fallopia japonica Plant 9.0 10.0 -0.4 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Eupatorium odoratum Leaf -- 35.0 0.2 Tramil
Euodia rutaecarpa Fruit -- 16.0 0.2 *
Eucommia ulmoides Bark -- 5.0 -1.1 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Erythroxylum novogranatense Leaf 2.7 2.9 -0.7 *
Erythroxylum novogranatense Leaf 2.5 2.7 -0.7 *
Erythroxylum coca Leaf 2.2 13.0 -0.4 *
Eriocaulon sp Leaf -- 9.0 -0.5 *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- 7.0 -0.6 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Equisetum hyemale Plant -- 4.0 -1.1 *
Ephedra spp Plant -- 2.0 -1.3 *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Flower -- -- *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Root -- -- *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Leaf -- -- *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Stem -- -- *
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 3.8 15.4 0.2 *
Elaeagnus umbellatus Fruit 2.0 13.0 0.0 *
Drynaria fortunei Rhizome -- 10.0 -0.1 *
Diospyros virginiana Stem 0.2 108.0 0.2 *
Diospyros virginiana Leaf 1.0 7.5 -0.6 *
Dioscorea bulbifera Rhizome -- 8.0 -0.6 *
Dioscorea alata Root 0.5 10.7 -0.1 *
Dendrobium nobile Stem -- 9.0 -0.6 *
Daucus carota Root 0.3 18.0 0.7 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonis Root 0.9 4.4 -0.8 *
Cyperus rotundus Rhizome -- 10.0 -0.1 *
Cynara cardunculus Flower 2.0 24.0 1.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cynanchum atratum Root -- 12.0 0.0 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome 6.0 17.0 1.4 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed 9.0 16.0 0.1 *
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 9.0 16.0 0.2 *
Cucurbita maxima Leaf 4.2 30.0 0.1 *
Cucurbita spp Fruit 0.7 12.0 -0.1 *
Cucurbita pepo Seed 14.0 25.0 0.9 *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 0.3 42.0 2.3 *
Cucumis melo Fruit 0.4 7.7 -0.4 *
Crocus sativus Silk Stigma Style -- 3.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Crataegus laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Crataegus laevigata Flower -- -- *
Crataegus cuneata Fruit -- 8.0 -0.4 *
Corylus avellana Seed 13.0 82.0 6.1 *
Cornus officinalis Fruit 5.0 6.0 -0.5 *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 10.0 13.0 0.0 *
Coriandrum sativum Leaf -- 18.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Coptis chinensis Rhizome 11.0 17.0 1.4 *
Coptis spp Rhizome 11.0 17.0 1.4 *
Coptis japonica Rhizome 11.0 17.0 1.4 *
Commiphora wightii Inflorescence -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculenta Root 1.6 8.0 -0.4 *
Colocasia esculenta Leaf -- 1.5 -0.7 *
Coix lacryma-jobi Seed -- 5.0 -0.9 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Cocos nucifera Seed 3.2 33.0 1.6 *
Cnidium officinale Rhizome -- 9.0 -0.3 *
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- 7.7 -0.4 *
Citrus medica Fruit -- 9.0 -0.3 *
Citrus aurantium Fruit 4.0 10.0 -0.2 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Citrus sinensis Fruit 0.44 5.5 -0.6 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit 1.0 6.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulata Fruit -- 4.8 -0.6 *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit -- 4.0 -0.7 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Cistanche salsa Plant -- 8.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Root Bark -- 9.0 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 2.0 10.0 1.9 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- 10.9 -0.5 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Bark -- 7.0 0.1 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 4.9 9.0 1.3 *
Cinnamomum burmannii Bark -- 5.0 -1.1 *
Cimicifuga dahurica Rhizome -- 8.0 -0.6 *
Cichorium endivia Leaf 1.0 16.8 -0.3 *
Cichorium intybus Root -- -- *
Cicer arietinum Seed 8.0 10.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Chenopodium album Seed -- 5.0 -0.9 *
Chamissoa altissima Leaf 2.0 23.0 -0.1 Tramil
Chaenomeles lagenaria Fruit -- 24.0 0.9 *
Celosia cristata Flower -- 9.0 -0.8 *
Castanea dentata Seed 4.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Castanea sativa Seed 2.0 5.0 -0.9 *
Castanea mollisima Seed 4.0 6.0 -0.8 *
Cassia tora Seed 8.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Carya ovata Seed -- 7.8 -0.6 *
Carya illinoensis Seed -- 15.0 0.0 *
Carya ovata Shoot 1.25 45.0 1.0 *
Carya glabra Shoot 0.9 55.0 1.6 *
Carum carvi Fruit 9.0 13.8 0.1 *
Carum carvi Seed 9.0 18.0 0.3 *
Carthamus tinctorius Flower 20.0 26.0 1.9 *
Carica papaya Fruit 0.1 5.0 -0.6 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 2.0 14.0 0.1 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit 0.5 20.0 0.6 *
Canavalia ensiformis Seed 7.0 8.0 -0.6 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- 20.0 -0.2 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 10.0 12.0 -0.3 *
Bupleurum chinense Root 13.0 16.0 0.5 *
Broussonetia papyrifera Fruit -- 12.0 -0.1 *
Brassica pekinensis Leaf 2.85 3.15 -0.7 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 0.3 87.0 1.6 *
Brassica nigra Leaf 0.58 11.2 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 0.68 52.0 0.7 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 0.3 8.0 -1.0 *
Brassica rapa Root 0.4 4.0 -0.9 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 3.0 20.0 -0.2 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Leaf 1.0 5.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 0.2 4.0 -0.9 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Brassica rapa Seed 5.0 6.0 -0.8 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 2.0 43.0 0.4 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 0.68 52.0 0.7 *
Brassica juncea Leaf 1.3 14.0 -0.4 *
Boehmeria nivea Plant -- 13.0 -0.1 *
Bletilla striata Tuber -- 12.0 0.0 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Blechnum orientale Rhizome -- 8.0 -0.6 *
Beta vulgaris Root 0.6 17.0 0.6 *
Bertholletia excelsa Seed -- 18.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Belamcanda chinensis Rhizome -- 6.0 -1.0 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 1.0 15.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Avena sativa Seed 2.4 25.7 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativa Plant -- 4.0 -1.1 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Atractylodes lancea Rhizome -- 12.0 0.3 *
Atractylodes ovata Rhizome 8.0 18.0 1.7 *
Astragalus membranaceus Root 1.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Asparagus lucidus Root 4.0 5.0 -0.7 *
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 1.0 24.0 -0.2 *
Asiasarum sieboldii Root 13.0 14.0 0.3 *
Asiasarum heterotropoides Root 13.0 14.0 0.3 *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Fruit 1.8 7.0 -0.5 *
Artocarpus altilis Fruit 0.8 7.5 -0.4 *
Artemisia herba-alba Plant 7.0 14.0 -0.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- 7.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia capillaris Plant -- 8.0 -0.7 *
Artemisia vulgaris Plant 18.0 20.0 0.7 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Armoracia rusticana Root 1.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Aristolochia debilis Fruit -- 14.0 0.1 *
Arisaema consanguineum Rhizome -- 7.0 -0.8 *
Areca catechu Seed -- 15.0 0.0 *
Arctium lappa Root -- 29.0 1.9 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Arachis hypogaea Seed 8.6 11.0 -0.3 *
Apium graveolens Seed -- 14.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolens Root 0.7 11.0 -0.1 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Apium graveolens Pt 0.4 7.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anthriscus cerefolium Leaf -- 4.4 -0.6 *
Annona muricata Fruit -- 1.6 -0.9 *
Angelica sinensis Root -- 5.0 -0.7 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Angelica laxiflora Root -- 9.0 -0.3 *
Angelica dahurica Root -- 10.0 -0.2 *
Anethum graveolens Plant 1.7 17.0 0.3 *
Anethum graveolens Fruit -- 8.0 -0.4 *
Anethum graveolens Seed -- 8.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anemarrhena asphodeloides Rhizome 5.0 9.0 -0.3 *
Ananas comosus Fruit 1.0 8.8 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anacardium occidentale Seed 22.0 37.0 2.0 *
Amphicarpaea bracteata Shoot -- 20.0 -0.4 *
Amorphophallus campanulatus Root 1.8 8.0 -0.4 *
Amomum xanthioides Seed -- 8.0 -0.6 *
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 1.0 19.0 -0.2 *
Alocasia macrorrhiza Root 0.7 2.4 -1.0 *
Allium schoenoprasum Leaf 1.0 24.0 -0.1 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb 1.4 9.7 -1.3 *
Allium cepa Seed -- 18.2 0.3 *
Allium cepa Bulb 0.3 11.0 0.1 *
Alisma plantago-aquatica Rhizome 11.0 15.0 1.0 *
Albizia julibrissin Bark 5.0 6.0 -0.5 *
Akebia quinata Stem -- 7.0 -0.7 *
Actaea dahurica Rhizome -- 8.0 -0.6 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 4.0 -1.5 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Aconitum carmichaelii Tuber -- 12.0 0.0 *
Achyranthes bidentata Root 6.0 11.0 -0.1 *
Acanthopanax gracilistylis Root Bark -- 14.0 1.0 *
Abelmoschus manihot Leaf 2.5 21.5 -0.2 *
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 1.0 9.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.