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Total Plants: 153
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit 4000.0 12000.0 -0.5 *
Vitis vinifera Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vitis vinifera Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vicia faba Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viburnum prunifolium Root Bark -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viburnum opulus Bark -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillus Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Urtica dioica Plant -- -- *
Theobroma cacao Seed 4500.0 7500.0 0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indica Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Stevia rebaudiana Plant -- 5350.0 -0.4 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Spinacia oleracea Leaf -- 2300.0 -0.5 Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Sorbus aucubaria Fruit -- -- *
Sophora pachycarpa Plant -- -- *
Solanum sessiliflorum Fruit 8000.0 80000.0 0.7 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Solanum tuberosum Tuber -- 2000.0 *
Solanum nigrum Leaf -- 50000.0 2.0 *
Sclerocarya caffra Fruit -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Plant -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit 5000.0 33333.0 -0.1 *
Sambucus nigra Fruit 500.0 7340.0 -0.5 *
Rubus idaeus Fruit -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Rubus chingii Fruit -- -- *
Rosa canina Fruit -- 15000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa canina Seed -- -- *
Rosa spp Fruit -- -- *
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- 35000.0 -0.1 *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit -- 8800.0 -0.5 *
Ribes rubrum Fruit -- 20200.0 -0.3 *
Rhododendron ferrugineum Leaf -- -- *
Rheum rhabarbarum Pt -- -- *
Quisqualis indica Fruit -- -- *
Pyrus communis Fruit -- -- *
Punica granatum Fruit Juice 8100.0 12300.0 -1.0 *
Psidium guajava Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- -- *
Prunus persica Fruit -- -- *
Prunus armeniaca Fruit -- -- *
Prunus domestica Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Portulaca oleracea Plant -- 5100.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Polypodium vulgare Root -- -- *
Plantago major Plant -- -- *
Pisum sativum Seed -- -- *
Piscidia piscipula Plant -- -- *
Physalis peruviana Fruit -- 22000.0 -0.3 *
Physalis ixocarpa Fruit 8010.0 11690.0 -0.5 *
Petroselinum crispum Root -- -- *
Passiflora edulis Fruit 20000.0 45600.0 0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Paris quadrifolia Plant -- -- *
Papaver somniferum Latex Exudate -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- 3000.0 -0.5 *
Opuntia ficus-indica Leaf -- 310.0 -0.6 *
Opuntia ficus-indica Fruit 475.0 4560.0 -0.6 *
Nicotiana tabacum Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Myrtus communis Fruit -- -- *
Myrciaria dubia Fruit -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit -- -- Rizk, A.F.M. and Al-Nowaihi, A.S., The Phytochemistry of the Horticultural Plants of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar.
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Medicago sativa Plant -- -- *
Mangifera indica Fruit -- -- *
Mammea americana Fruit -- 6000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Malus domestica Plant -- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Lupinus albus Seed -- -- *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant -- -- *
Ledum palustre Plant -- -- *
Lactuca sativa Leaf -- 500.0 -0.6 *
Lactuca virosa Plant -- -- *
Lactuca scariola Latex Exudate -- -- *
Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf -- -- *
Juniperus communis Leaf -- -- *
Juglans regia Fruit -- -- *
Hippophae rhamnoides Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower 6233.0 56667.0 *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit 37400.0 170000.0 2.1 *
Helianthus annuus Seed -- 1900.0 -1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glycine max Seed 8000.0 13000.0 1.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ginkgo biloba Seed -- -- Kameoka, H. and Nakai, K. 1987. Components of essential oil from the root of Glycyrrhiza-glabra. Nippon Gogeikagaku Kaishi 61(9): 1119-1122.
Ginkgo biloba Pollen Or Spore -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Garcinia mangostana Fruit 4200.0 27815.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Galium odoratum Plant -- -- *
Fragaria spp Fruit 3500.0 8000.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Foeniculum vulgare Seed -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit -- -- *
Filipendula ulmaria Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus carica Fruit 1000.0 4400.0 -0.6 *
Fagopyrum esculentum Leaf -- 8200.0 -0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphorbia tirucalli Plant -- 74000.0 2.0 *
Euonymus atropurpureus Plant -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Equisetum arvense Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Digitalis purpurea Leaf -- -- *
Daucus carota Root -- -- *
Datura stramonium Plant -- 750.0 -0.6 *
Cucumis melo Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cryptostegia grandifolia Latex Exudate -- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophylla Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Crataegus laevigata Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Convallaria majalis Plant -- -- *
Coffea arabica Seed -- -- *
Cocos nucifera Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Citrus sinensis Fruit 5600.0 9800.0 -0.5 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit -- 800.0 -0.6 *
Citrus mitis Fruit Juice 36000.0 55200.0 1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Citrus limon Fruit Juice -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus reticulata Fruit 8600.0 12200.0 -0.5 *
Citrus aurantium Plant -- -- *
Citrus paradisi Fruit 11900.0 21000.0 -0.3 *
Citrus limon Fruit -- 59500.0 0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- -- Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.
Citrus mitis Fruit 28100.0 281000.0 3.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cichorium intybus Plant -- -- *
Chelidonium majus Plant -- -- *
Chaenomeles lagenaria Fruit -- -- *
Cephaelis ipecacuanha Plant -- -- *
Catalpa ovata Fruit -- -- *
Carica papaya Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Capsicum frutescens Fruit -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant -- -- *
Capparis spinosa Plant -- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Leaf -- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower -- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Plant -- -- *
Brassica oleracea Stem -- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf -- -- *
Brassica oleracea var. italica Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Beta vulgaris Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Berberis vulgaris Plant -- -- *
Averrhoa carambola Fruit -- 13200.0 -0.4 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Avena sativa Hull Husk -- -- *
Avena sativa Petiole -- -- *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Apium graveolens Pt -- -- *
Apium graveolens Root -- -- *
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Annona muricata Plant -- -- *
Ananas comosus Fruit 3200.0 86000.0 0.8 *
Anabasis aphylla Plant -- -- *
Alocasia macrorrhiza Plant -- -- *
Allium schoenoprasum Leaf -- -- *
Allium cepa Leaf -- -- Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Allium cepa Bulb -- -- Soldatenkov, S. V., Mazurova, T. A., Ranteleev, A. N. 1960. Organic Acids of Onion and Spinach. Trudy Petergof Biol. Inst., Leningrad Gosudarst Univ Im AA Zhdanova, 18: 55-61.
Aesculus hippocastanum Bark -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Adonis vernalis Plant -- -- *
Aconitum napellus Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.