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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 126000.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 115000.0 10.5 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil 40000.0 106000.0 2.5 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 85000.0 2.1 *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 83000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Salvia officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 28000.0 66400.0 1.5 *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Essent. Oil -- 66000.0 1.0 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Coleus barbatus Root Essent. Oil -- 64000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Salvia officinalis Essential Oil 30200.0 60700.0 1.1 *
Pinus roxburghii Resin, Exudate, Sap 12000.0 55000.0 1.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- 54000.0 0.9 *
Salvia officinalis Et -- 47000.0 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot Essent. Oil -- 38100.0 1.7 *
Pinus sylvestris Leaf Essent. Oil -- 35000.0 0.4 *
Tanacetum parthenium Leaf Essent. Oil -- 30000.0 0.2 *
Artemisia salsoloides Shoot -- 24500.0 2.1 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Petroselinum crispum Fruit Essent. Oil 7000.0 20800.0 1.4 *
Pinus kesiya Resin, Exudate, Sap 10000.0 20000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus insularis Resin, Exudate, Sap 10000.0 20000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Salvia officinalis Leaf 20.0 18592.0 6.8 *
Coleus barbatus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 11200.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatus Stem Essent. Oil -- 11200.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Origanum vulgare Shoot Essent. Oil 1500.0 10500.0 -0.2 *
Ferula jaeschkeana Fruit -- 9500.0 3.6 *
Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil -- 9000.0 -0.4 *
Coriandrum sativum Seed Essent. Oil 2100.0 7600.0 1.3 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.6 *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.3 *
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil 100.0 7000.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Essent. Oil 4000.0 5100.0 -0.7 *
Origanum vulgare Essential Oil -- 5100.0 -0.5 *
Valeriana officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 5000.0 -0.7 *
Petroselinum crispum Seed Essent. Oil -- 5000.0 0.3 *
Abies sachalinensis Branches 4160.0 4680.0 *
Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil -- 4100.0 -0.6 *
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 2000.0 4000.0 -0.6 *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 2000.0 4000.0 -0.1 *
Satureja montana Essential Oil -- 3100.0 -0.6 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 3080.0 1.0 *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 3060.0 0.1 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 3055.0 0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Satureja douglasii Plant 1183.0 2795.0 4.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus saturejoides Shoot -- 2740.0 0.1 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 23.0 2350.0 3.4 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 1035.0 2280.0 0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.7 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 355.0 1435.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Piper nigrum Fruit Essent. Oil 1000.0 1400.0 -1.0 *
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 735.0 1375.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 735.0 1375.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Satureja obovata Shoot 850.0 1305.0 -0.0 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Pycnanthemum loomisii Shoot 330.0 1260.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceus Shoot 210.0 1245.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Salvia triloba Plant 170.0 1200.0 1.4 *
Monarda punctata Plant 10.0 1080.0 1.2 *
Apium graveolens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 -0.8 *
Rosmarinus tomentosus Shoot 590.0 960.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Cymbopogon nardus Plant 150.0 960.0 1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pycnanthemum montanum Shoot 833.0 952.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Abies balsamea Plant 440.0 950.0 1.0 *
Artemisia annua Plant 12.0 920.0 1.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 300.0 900.0 -0.8 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- 900.0 -0.7 *
Carum carvi Seed 1.0 900.0 1.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 900.0 -0.1 Jim Duke's personal files.
Carum carvi Fruit 1.0 900.0 0.0 *
Hedeoma drummondii Plant -- 900.0 0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda fistulosa Plant 1.0 856.0 0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 11.0 770.0 0.1 *
Abies alba Leaf 528.0 738.0 0.1 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 80.0 640.0 0.6 *
Rosmarinus x mendizabalii Shoot 430.0 605.0 -0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Achillea millefolium Leaf 2.0 600.0 0.0 *
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 590.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 590.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Thymus orospedanus Plant -- 578.0 0.4 J. Nat. Prod.
Salvia canariensis Leaf -- 575.0 0.0 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Thymus zygis Shoot 90.0 550.0 -0.1 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 10.0 540.0 0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 10.0 540.0 -0.1 *
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 520.0 0.0 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil -- 500.0 -0.8 *
Petroselinum crispum Seed 3.0 490.0 0.1 *
Micromeria teneriffae Leaf -- 470.0 -0.0 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 470.0 -0.1 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 470.0 -0.1 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Abies spectabilis Leaf 175.0 465.0 -0.0 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome 10.0 460.0 -1.0 *
Hedeoma reverchonii Plant -- 460.0 0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Shoot 2.0 420.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 400.0 0.1 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower 240.0 400.0 1.4 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Cuminum cyminum Seed Essent. Oil -- 400.0 -1.5 *
Lepechinia calycina Plant -- 390.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha longifolia Shoot -- 385.0 -0.1 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 15.0 375.0 0.0 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 370.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum onites Shoot -- 370.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 335.0 -0.1 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Monarda didyma Plant 25.0 320.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus riatarum Shoot -- 275.0 -0.1 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 150.0 252.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant 1.0 240.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula latifolia Plant 25.0 231.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda media Plant 15.0 231.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Leaf 105.0 205.0 -0.1 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Laurus nobilis Leaf 24.0 186.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didyma Leaf 90.0 170.0 -0.1 *
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 170.0 -0.1 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 170.0 -0.1 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 2.0 155.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Peumus boldus Leaf 30.0 150.0 -0.1 *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 65.0 150.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Satureja thymbra Shoot -- 150.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Satureja cuneifolia Shoot -- 145.0 -0.1 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Thymus mastichina Plant 20.0 140.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Valeriana officinalis Leaf -- 130.0 -0.1 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 130.0 -0.1 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Angelica archangelica Root 2.0 130.0 1.4 *
Piper nigrum Fruit -- 120.0 -0.3 *
Pimpinella anisum Fruit -- 119.0 -0.3 *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- 119.0 -1.2 *
Juniperus communis Fruit 1.0 100.0 -0.3 *
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- 95.0 -0.1 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- 95.0 -0.1 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Monarda clinopodia Plant -- 88.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianum Shoot 6.0 87.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja montana Plant 2.0 85.0 -0.5 *
Lavandula x hybrida Shoot 55.0 85.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Thymus x citriodorus Plant -- 80.0 -0.5 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit 50.0 80.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 6.0 80.0 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 18.0 72.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinale Root 7.0 70.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha pulegium Plant 1.0 70.0 -0.5 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Daucus carota Seed 1.0 70.0 -1.3 *
Hedeoma hispida Plant -- 66.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Valeriana officinalis Root 3.0 65.0 -0.8 *
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 65.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Brophy, J.J., Goldsack, R.J., and Clarkson, J.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) Growing in Northern Australia, J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 459-461.
Origanum vulgare Plant 1.0 64.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermedia Plant 26.0 60.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja cilicica Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 60.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Pycnanthemum muticum Shoot 1.0 50.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus limon Essential Oil 2.0 50.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- 45.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Lepechinia schiediana Plant -- 40.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lindera benzoin Fruit 22.0 40.0 -0.3 *
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf 20.0 40.0 -0.2 *
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Citrus reticulata Fruit 1.0 40.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Ageratum conyzoides Plant 5.0 38.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 35.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 20.0 31.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 30.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Myrtus communis Plant 8.0 30.0 -0.6 *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Plant 8.0 30.0 -0.6 Wealth of India.
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 30.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Micromeria croatica Leaf -- 30.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Carum carvi Plant -- 30.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 10.0 30.0 -0.3 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 29.0 -0.1 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Origanum onites Plant -- 28.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 27.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Lindera benzoin Twig 17.0 26.0 *
Mentha x piperita Leaf 2.0 25.0 -0.2 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 25.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Micromeria juliana Leaf -- 25.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 25.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 25.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Monarda citriodora Plant 6.0 25.0 -0.6 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 23.0 -0.2 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 23.0 -0.2 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Coridothymus capitatus Shoot -- 22.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Monarda lindheimeri Plant -- 21.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Mentha x rotundifolia Leaf -- 20.0 -0.2 *
Thymus broussonettii Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf 1.0 20.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Thymus serpyllum Plant 1.0 19.0 -0.6 *
Satureja parvifolia Shoot -- 19.0 -0.1 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Hypericum perforatum Plant 1.0 18.0 -0.6 *
Satureja odora Shoot -- 18.0 -0.1 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Eucalyptus nova-anglica Leaf 8.0 15.0 -0.2 Brophy, J. L., Lassak, E. V., & Boland, D. J. 1992. The Leaf Essential Oils of Eucalyptus nova-anglica. Deane & Maiden. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 29-32.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf 0.2 14.0 -0.2 *
Lantana camara Shoot -- 13.0 -0.1 *
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 11.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Monarda didyma Flower -- 10.0 -0.7 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Pycnanthemum torreyi Shoot -- 10.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus capitatus Plant -- 10.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 10.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus paniculata Shoot -- 10.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 9.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Lycopus virginicus Plant 3.0 8.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Teucrium micropodioides Leaf -- 8.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Pycnanthemum beadlei Shoot -- 7.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 7.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 7.0 -0.1 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 7.0 -0.1 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- 6.0 -0.2 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Micromeria dalmatica Leaf -- 6.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Sideritis pauli Shoot -- 6.0 -0.1 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 6.0 -0.1 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 6.0 -0.1 *
Cleonia lusitanica Leaf 1.0 5.0 -0.2 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Micromeria congesta Leaf 1.0 5.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 5.0 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum camphora Leaf -- 5.0 -0.2 *
Litsea glaucescens Shoot 2.0 4.0 -0.1 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Satureja subspicata Plant -- 4.0 -0.6 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 4.0 -0.1 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 4.0 -0.1 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Salvia gilliesii Shoot -- 3.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Citrus limon Petiole -- 3.0 *
Sideritis mugronensis Flower 2.0 3.0 -0.7 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Teucrium divaricatum Leaf -- 3.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Aralia cordata Stem -- 3.0 *
Glechoma hederacea Plant 1.0 3.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lindera benzoin Leaf -- 2.0 -0.2 *
Sideritis athoa Shoot -- 2.0 -0.1 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Illicium verum Fruit -- 1.0 -0.4 *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 1.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Agastache nepetoides Plant -- 1.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Micromeria thymifolia Leaf -- 1.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Salvia dorisiana Shoot 0.8 1.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Sideritis mugronensis Leaf 0.5 1.0 -0.2 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Micromeria fruticosa Leaf 1.0 1.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1.0 -0.6 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1.0 -0.6 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 1.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Boswellia sacra Resin Essent. Oil -- 0.7 Abdel Wahab, S. M., Aboutabl, E. A., El-Zalabani, S. M., Fouad, H. A., De Pooter, H. L., El-Fallaha, B. 1987. The Essential Oil of Olibanum. Plant Med. 53 (4): 382-384.
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 0.7 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 0.7 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 0.55 -0.2 *
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 0.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 0.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 0.5 -0.6 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.4 -0.1 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 0.39 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- 0.24 -0.2 *
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 0.2 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Citrus sinensis Fruit -- 0.1 -0.4 *
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Elsholtzia cristata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Kobold, U., Vostrowsky, O., Bestmann, H.J., Bisht, J.C., Pant, A.K., Melkani, A.B. and Mathela, C.S. 1987. Terpenoids from Elsholtzia Species; II. Constituents of Essential Oil from a New Chemotype of Elsholtzia cristata. Planta Medica 1987: 268-271.
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Elsholtzia pilosa Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 *
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Teucrium pseudoscorodonia Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Teucrium scorodonia Shoot -- 0.05 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf -- 0.001 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- -- *
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.2 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.2 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Teucrium cyprium Leaf -- -- -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium kotschyanum Leaf -- -- -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Sassafras albidum Leaf -- -- -0.2 *
Cannabis sativa Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Cannabis sativa Flower Essent. Oil -- -- *
Juniperus sabina Plant -- -- *
Cannabis sativa Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Kaempferia galanga Plant -- -- *
Cannabis sativa Essential Oil -- -- *
Larrea tridentata Plant -- -- *
Cannabis sativa Plant -- -- *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Houttuynia cordata Essential Oil -- -- *
Houttuynia cordata Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Bark -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Bulb -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Flower -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Leaf -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Twig -- -- *
Magnolia officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Marrubium vulgare Plant -- -- *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- -- Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- -- Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- -- Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- -- Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Oenanthe aquatica Fruit -- -- *
Oenanthe javanica Shoot -- -- *
Pastinaca sativa Root -- -- *
Pinus elliottii Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pinus mugo Leaf -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Pinus palustris Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Alpinia galanga Rhizome -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Pycnanthemum curvipes Shoot -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Seed -- -- Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Citrus paradisi Pericarp -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Kaempferia galanga Rhizome -- -- *
Satureja hortensis Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Saussurea lappa Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Schinus molle Fruit -- -- *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Thuja occidentalis Branches -- -- *
Curcuma longa Rhizome -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed Essent. Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Zingiber officinale Essential Oil -- -- *
Psidium guajava Pericarp Essent. Oil -- -- *
Centella asiatica Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Marrubium vulgare Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus globulus Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Juniperus communis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Juniperus communis Essential Oil -- -- *
Calamintha nepeta Leaf -- -- Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Citrus limon Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Piper nigrum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Tagetes filifolia Shoot -- -- *
Boswellia serrata Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha pulegium Shoot -- -- *
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Rosmarinus officinalis Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Teucrium asiaticum Shoot -- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Elettaria cardamomum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Teucrium salviastrum Shoot -- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- -- *
Thymus zygis Shoot -- -- Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Myrciaria dubia Fruit -- -- *
Citrus aurantium Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agathosma betulina Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Amomum xanthioides Seed -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia absinthium Plant -- -- *
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf -- -- *
Barosma betulina Leaf -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Citrus aurantium Plant -- -- *
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Cyperus rotundus Root -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Essential Oil -- -- *
Angelica archangelica Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Angelica archangelica Fruit -- -- *
Ferula gummosa Essential Oil -- -- *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome -- -- Wealth of India.
Gossypium sp Plant -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Fruit -- -- *
Helianthus annuus Essential Oil -- -- *
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativum Essential Oil -- -- *
Tagetes minuta Essential Oil -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.