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Total Plants: 178
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Scutellaria lateriflora Essential Oil -- 92000.0 1.4 *
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 4900.0 81600.0 1.4 *
Apium graveolens Fruit Essent. Oil -- 35000.0 1.7 *
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- 35000.0 *
Centella asiatica Essential Oil -- 30000.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Panax ginseng Flower Essent. Oil -- 29000.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- 16100.0 -0.9 *
Copaifera spp Gum 3900.0 14400.0 *
Coleus barbatus Root Essent. Oil -- 14000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Piper cubeba Fruit Essent. Oil -- 10000.0 -0.2 *
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- 4000.0 -0.7 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Tamarindus indica Fruit Essent. Oil -- 3000.0 -0.7 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 3000.0 *
Piper cubeba Fruit 1200.0 2400.0 2.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Shoot 16.0 1600.0 5.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianum Shoot 240.0 1160.0 3.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Umbellularia californica Plant 280.0 1120.0 3.7 *
Origanum vulgare Shoot Essent. Oil -- 1100.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf 120.0 1080.0 5.3 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.