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Total Plants: 339
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Apium graveolens Fruit Essent. Oil 5000.0 43000.0 -0.3 *
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil 5000.0 43000.0 -1.0 *
Salvia officinalis Et -- 41000.0 *
Perilla frutescens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 38000.0 -0.2 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 6800.0 37700.0 -0.4 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf Essent. Oil 27000.0 35000.0 -0.2 *
Piper cubeba Fruit Essent. Oil -- 34000.0 -0.4 *
Piper nigrum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 30000.0 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 18500.0 -0.3 *
Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil -- 17800.0 -0.6 *
Myrrhis odorata Leaf Essent. Oil -- 17000.0 -0.3 *
Syzygium aromaticum Leaf 2295.0 14520.0 6.8 Charalambous, G. (Ed.). 1994. Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Science B. V. Amsterdam. 764 pp.
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 2300.0 13900.0 -1.1 *
Pinus sylvestris Leaf Essent. Oil -- 13900.0 -0.3 *
Valeriana officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 2500.0 13600.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- 13500.0 *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 13000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot Essent. Oil -- 12200.0 -1.1 *
Salvia officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 11000.0 -0.3 *
Murraya koenigii Leaf 23.0 7540.0 3.4 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.