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Total Plants: 134
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- -- *
Zea mays Shoot -- -- *
Zea mays Silk Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit Juice -- -- *
Umbellularia californica Plant 70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Triticum aestivum Shoot -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Syzygium aromaticum Flower -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Syringa vulgaris Flower -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Styrax benzoin Plant -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Flower Essent. Oil -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Plant -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rubus idaeus Plant -- -- *
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Robinia pseudoacacia Flower -- -- *
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rheum palmatum Rhizome -- 1.5 *
Psidium guajava Fruit -- 1000.0 1.7 *
Prunus persica Fruit -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- 3.0 -0.8 *
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf 413.0 456.0 0.2 *
Prunus persica Seed -- -- *
Prunus dulcis Seed -- 8200.0 *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Phaseolus vulgaris Stem Essent. Oil -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- 1.0 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- -- *
Petiveria alliacea Root -- -- Tramil
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Perilla frutescens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 16000.0 0.7 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Panax ginseng Shoot -- -- *
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- 700.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 0.1 -0.5 *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Melissa officinalis Tissue Culture -- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca leucadendra Essential Oil -- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant -- 1.0 -1.3 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Juglans nigra Essential Oil -- 28000.0 1.4 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Jasminum officinale Flower -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Glycyrrhiza glabra Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Ficus carica Fruit -- 1.0 -0.8 *
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 280.0 0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 80.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eruca sativa Hs -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 15.0 -0.2 *
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 13.0 -0.2 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cucumis melo Petiole -- -- *
Cnicus benedictus Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrullus lanatus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 28.0 1960.0 2.6 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -1.4 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Plant 26.0 104.0 -0.3 *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Flower -- -- Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Carthamus tinctorius Leaf -- 0.04 -0.5 *
Carthamus tinctorius Bud -- 0.1 *
Carica papaya Fruit -- 300.0 -0.1 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Shoot 2100.0 2300.0 5.5 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 0.55 -0.5 *
Brassica oleracea Stem -- 0.02 *
Avena sativa Seed -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 15900.0 0.7 *
Arctium lappa Root -- -- *
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- 300.0 -0.7 *
Anacardium occidentale Fruit -- -- *
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 135.0 0.1 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 200.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Acacia farnesiana Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.